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David Ellis' scorecard

World Triathlon Para Championships

Friday 5th November, 2021

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 1g

    Carb per hour
  • 129mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 517ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 250mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 0mg

    Total caffeine
  • How David hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 500 (Drink Mix)
    2 x Porridge pots
    2 x Cups of coffee
    *** Review technique if drinking much at this point!
    250ml x PH 500 (Tablets)
    250ml x Plain water

    How David's hydration and fueling went...

      • David Ellis had a successful race at the World Triathlon Para Champs, winning the PTVI division in 58 minutes and 29 seconds
      • David and his guide, Luke Pollard, raced excellently to finish 42 seconds ahead of second place, Hector Laparra. He said “I’m very happy with the result, but didn’t have to go full gas so don’t know how I would have done in that situation”. He rated his race satisfaction as 8 out of 10


      • David drank a total of ~500ml/16oz during the race, this broke down into around ~250ml/8oz from his bottle of PH 500 on the bike and ~250ml/8oz of water picked up from aid stations on the run. Considering the hot conditions (24℃/75°F), this was an adequate amount to replace his losses during a sprint-distance triathlon
      • Although we don’t have data on David’s sweat rate, he was happy with his strategy and believed he drank enough during the race. He also mentioned “it wasn’t as hot as we’d prepped for so I think that’s why I didn’t need to drink as much as I did in races elsewhere this season, like the Paralympics in Tokyo for example”
      • David preloaded with sodium before the race with PH 500 in 500ml/16oz. We would recommend he increases the strength of his preload to PH 1500 to start optimally hydrated, which will help ensure that he has a large reservoir of fluid to draw from when he starts to sweat
      • Due to the length of the race, David consumed a small amount of sodium during the race (125mg). This is to be expected for the relatively short nature of the race, but it does mean that it’s important that he starts races of this duration in a well hydrated state
      • Before the race, David also used cooling methods of drinking some iced water around 30 minutes before the swim. This can be an effective method of marginally reducing core body temperature prior to the start of the hot and humid race


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • David didn’t eat anything during the race. This is a common strategy because carbohydrate ingestion has been shown to have little-to-no effect on performance outcomes for a race of this duration. His glycogen stores will have fueled him sufficiently over the 58 minutes as long as his pre-race fueling was adequate
      • Before the race, David ate a high carb intake of two porridge pots to increase his glycogen stores. He also had two cups of coffee in the morning, to increase his perceived energy levels going into the swim
      • He didn’t experience any GI issues (10 out of 10) and felt that his energy levels were “pretty good throughout and never felt low”, rating them a 9 out of 10


      • David swam, cycled and ran excellently to win the World Triathlon Para Champs
      • He fueled well with a carb-rich breakfast and caffeine before the race to sustain him for the hour-long, high-intensity exercise bout
      • David decided “rather than worrying about getting the planned fluid in, I just drank to thirst” which was effective in this short sprint race
      • In future for such hot events, we would recommend that he preloads more effectively to make sure he is starting optimally hydrated

    Key info

    David Ellis

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Short course
    World Triathlon Para Championships
    Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
    5th November, 2021
    Swim Distance
    0.8km / 0.5mi
    Bike Distance
    20.0km / 12.4mi
    Run Distance
    5.0km / 3.1mi
    Total Distance
    25.8km / 16.0mi

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    Hot and Humid
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    24°C / 75°F
    Max Temp
    24°C / 75°F
    Avg Temp
    24°C / 75°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Energy levels
    Toilet stops
    Felt like I needed to coming out of swim which possibly stopped me drinking as much on the bike
    GI comfort
    Twinges but not full-on cramps

    David's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake11255000250
    Per hour11295170
    Bike and Run
    Total intake11255000250
    Per hour11797140
    Total intake11252500500
    Per hour22885770

    Data Confidence







    There is good confidence in the accuracy of the data reported. An athlete feels that the numbers closely reflect what they consumed despite a couple of estimations which may carry some degree of error. The majority of what was consumed is recorded to a high level of specificity (most volumes are known through the use of bottles brands quantities flavours). The numbers are very plausible and align with previous data recordings (if an athlete has collected data previously).

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