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Matthew Marquardt's scorecard

IRONMAN World Championships

Thursday 6th October, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 120g

    Carb per hour
  • 797mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 1,162ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 686mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 5.70mg/kg

    Caffeine per bodyweight
  • How Matthew hit those numbers

    1 x Cup of Oatmeal
    1 x Cup of Berries
    680ml x lactose free ultra-filtered milk
    4 x Eggs (3 Whites, 1 whole)
    170g x Beetroot Powder
    500ml x Starch based energy drink
    1 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    *** Try to avoid drinking too much at this point in the race!
    1.44L x Plain water
    5 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    1 x Energy gel with caffeine (25g carb, 100mg caffeine)
    1 x Energy gel (22g carb)
    1L x Energy Drink Mix (116g carb)
    2.55L x On Course Energy drink
    1L x Lemon and Lime Energy Drink Mix (100g Carb)
    6 x Electrolyte Capsules (215mg Sodium)
    2.59L x Plain water
    8 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    3 x Energy gel with caffeine (25g carb, 100mg caffeine)
    227ml x Energy drink mix serving (29g carb)
    810ml x Energy drink (22g carb)
    486ml x Cola
    3 x Electrolyte Capsules (215mg Sodium)

    How Matthew's hydration and fueling went...

      • Matthew is a medical student and triathlete currently studying at Ohio State University. After emerging victorious in his 25-29 age group at IRONMAN Texas with a time of 8:23:3 in April, he was looking to carry his good form through to the IRONMAN World Championships in Kona, Hawaii
      • With the third fastest amateur swim (49:58) and bike (4:38:22) times at the event, Matthew closed out his stellar performance with a 3:01:35 marathon to be crowned 1st in his age group, and 2nd overall non-professional across the two days of racing
      • As a Supersapiens ambassador, Matthew wore a Supersapiens sensor throughout the race, which allowed him to be conscious of his continuous glucose levels, so that he could monitor his fuel intake effectively while on the move


      • We generally recommend athletes preload with a strong electrolyte drink the night before and on the morning of races to ensure that they start optimally hydrated. Matthew only had lactose free milk and a sports drink with relatively low sodium, so this is certainly something that he could consider ahead of his next race
      • On the bike, Matthew drank around ~1.4L (49oz) of water that he picked up at aid stations, whilst also taking the opportunity to dump some on his head in order to help keep himself cool in a race where the soaring temperatures and high humidity would play a key role for many athletes
      • Accounting for his pre-mixed bottles and aid station energy drinks, Matthew had an average fluid intake of ~1.26 litres per hour (44oz/h) while on the bike - maintaining a relative sodium concentration of ~868mg of sodium per litre (mg/32oz)
      • While on the run, based on estimations from ~48 cups that he picked up from aid stations, Matthew averaged ~1.36L (48oz) of fluid per hour, while the use of electrolyte capsules mitigated the severity of decline in relative sodium concentration to ~421mg/L (mg/32oz)
      • As someone with a Sweat Test score of 655mg/L, Matthew did extremely well to maintain a relative sodium concentration of ~686mg/L throughout this race, undoubtedly replacing a good proportion of his losses
      • Matthew perceived his hydration strategy as a 10 (out of 10) while on the bike, before dropping to a 4 (out of 10) for the run as he said it was difficult to simultaneously manage drinking and stuffing ice down his trisuit while moving at such high speeds


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • With a good level of physiological knowledge, Matthew knew that carb-loading in the days before the event would top up his liver and muscle glycogen stores, giving him access to maximal energy on the day
      • A final energy gel ~15 minutes before the start of the swim also topped off Matthew’s glucose levels to help spare stored glycogen for later on in the race. This was confirmed by his Supersapiens sensor which recorded a significant uplift in glucose shortly before his starting time, supporting their recommendations on the best time to eat before exercising
      • He also perceived his energy as a 10 (out of 10) for the swim, suggesting that this strategy is definitely one to carry forward to his future races
      • Through the use of various products with different gut transit times and carbohydrate types which he extensively trialled in training, Matthew was able to hit an impressive overall average of ~120g carb per hour. This average actually includes the swim, with him hitting ~132g/h on the bike and run splits! This is another example of an athlete exceeding the 90g/h value which had previously been thought to be a ceiling to absorption, whilst maintaining a perceived GI rating of 10 (out of 10) throughout
      • Having reported a dip in energy from miles 20-45 on the bike, this is corroborated by his Supersapiens glucose trace which reflects a significant drop in blood glucose at the same time
      • Interestingly, David Lipman, Head of Sport Science at Supersapiens, pointed out that reductions in energy perception often arise when there's a drop in blood glucose, even if this starts from a high initial point and drops down to one which would still normally be perceived as in the ‘performance zone’
      • Similarly Matthew reported declining energy in the latter stages of the run. This is the time during the race when fueling becomes even more important because glycogen stores are at their lowest and fatigue at its highest. Getting more fuel on board in the form of easily tolerated gels and drink mixes becomes crucial, with very little stored energy to fall back on while maintaining such high intensity output


      • Matthew was satisfied to come away from the 2022 IRONMAN World Championships with the fastest amateur time of his race day, and a 25-29 age group win. Although he does admit that he hoped the run would be slightly faster - Matthew described the last 20 miles as the most challenging and painful he’s ever experienced. It’s worth taking into account the fact that he was still recovering from a recent infection which may have had some influence on this too
      • Immediately after this race, Matthew had to jump back into medical school classes so certainly had an ‘active recovery’ experience, both mentally and physically
      • Matthew has his sights set on replicating this performance at the IRONMAN 70.3 World Championships, just 3 weeks after his race in Hawaii

    Key info

    Matthew Marquardt

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Full distance
    IRONMAN World Championships
    Kona, Hawaii
    6th October, 2022
    Swim Distance
    3.8km / 2.4mi
    Bike Distance
    180.2km / 112.0mi
    Run Distance
    42.2km / 26.2mi
    Total Distance
    226.2km / 140.6mi
    Bike Elevation
    1,772m / 5,814ft
    Run Elevation
    307m / 1,007ft
    Total Elevation
    2,079m / 6,821ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    Very Hot and Humid
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    25°C / 77°F
    Max Temp
    31°C / 88°F
    Avg Temp
    29°C / 84°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    I'd say it was perfect until the run, where it was more like a 4/10
    Energy levels
    I was not perfectly “with it” all the time, but it is hard to tell how much of that was from not enough fueling versus just needing to dig really deep to get to the finish line
    Toilet stops
    GI comfort
    Thankfully I suffered no GI distress, after being ill in the week leading up to the race
    Twinges but not full-on cramps

    Matthew's Thoughts

     The results that I had truly are a dream come true and are hard to fathom given that I picked up triathlon just over 18 months ago... I hope to use the sport to make a difference in the lives of cancer patients, and that got me through the most challenging moments

    Matthew's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake1,0346,8389,971439686
    Per hour1207971,16251
    Bike and Run
    Total intake1,0096,8189,971439684
    Per hour1328911,30357
    Total intake6125,0855,856100868
    Per hour1321,0981,26422
    Total intake3971,7334,115339421
    Per hour1325741,364112

    Data Confidence







    There is some confidence in the quantities and brands of products consumed but the data may lack specifics (e.g. volumes specific flavours). A high number of estimations have been made and the room for error is moderate-high. There may also be the possibility that some intake has been grossly over- or under-estimated.

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