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Zach Josie's scorecard

IRONMAN World Championships

Saturday 7th May, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 57g

    Carb per hour
  • 409mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 446ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 917mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 331mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Zach hit those numbers

    2 x Kodiak cake pancakes with maple syrup
    1 x Cup of coffee
    200ml x Plain water
    450ml x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    1 x PF 30 Gel
    *** Try to avoid drinking too much at this point in the race!
    2.5L x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    1.5 x PF 90 Gel
    11 x PF 30 Chews
    3 x PF 30 Gel with Caffeine
    2.7L x Plain water
    1 x Energy bar (42g carb)
    0.5 x Banana
    5 x PH Electrolyte Capsule
    2 x PF 30 Gel
    1 x PF 30 Chews
    540ml x Plain water
    390ml x Cola
    1 x Banana
    1 x Potato Chips
    4 x Watermelon Cube

    How Zach's hydration and fueling went...

      • Zach made his debut over the IRONMAN distance at the World Championships in St George
      • Zach described the experience by saying “I was pleased to finish. I lost a fair amount of time due to some poor decision making, but I can still take a lot of positives from the experience”. He swam well, and set off on the bike conservatively so to avoid “blowing up” later in the race
      • After meticulously planning his fuel and hydration strategy, Zach had a momentary lapse in concentration on the run and ate some potato chips, something he had never done before. Unfortunately this caused him to feel sick, and put a hold on his running for a few kilometres until this settled
      • Overall, Zach is grateful for the experience and even though he had hoped for more in terms of his performance, he remains positive and determined to execute his plan better in future long distance triathlons


      • Zach preloaded the night before the race by drinking ~750ml/24oz of PH 1500, and he sipped on ~450ml/15oz of PH 1500 whilst walking through transition before the race start
      • Zach drank an average of ~446ml/15oz per hour across the duration of the 14 hour 45 minutes. The conditions were extremely hot, with temperatures hitting ~35℃/94℉ at some points which would have elicited a high rate of sweating
      • Zach’s hydration strategy consisted of five 500ml/16oz bottles containing PH 1500 tablets, and 10 x ~250ml/8oz bottles of plain water on the bike. This quantity of sodium (~525mg/hr average) in these warmer conditions will have done a good job of replacing Zach’s sodium lost in his sweat, and as he reports to be a ‘low-salt’ sweater, he would likely have replaced the majority of his losses. We hope to validate this by getting Zach booked in for an Advanced Sweat Test
      • Zach’s relative sodium concentration for his intake during the whole race was ~917mg/L. This is a solid amount, and if Zach’s estimation of being a ‘low-salt’ sweater is accurate, he would likely have done a decent job of replacing his losses. Despite this, we would still recommend he bumps up his total fluid intake whilst maintaining a similar relative sodium concentration
      • During the run, Zach used the on-course aid stations for all of his hydration needs, taking cups of water and coke interchangeably. Unfortunately, due to the stomach issues he experienced in the middle of the run, his fluid intakes were low overall, with an average of ~171ml/hr. This is considerably lower than we would recommend in temperatures as hot as St George, and is something Zach should look to bump up in future race, especially in these conditions
      • During the marathon, where temperatures reached as high as ~35℃/94℉, Zach kept himself cool by pouring cups of water over himself at every aid station
      • Overall, Zach rated his fueling and hydration plan 8 out of 10, saying he was pleased with his increased sodium intake due to the heat, but as he held off drinking for several miles on the run, his execution of the plan was stalled


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Zach topped up his glycogen stores by eating a carb rich meal the night before the race which consisted of chicken, rice and two pieces of white bread. He followed this up by having pancakes and maple syrup for breakfast on race day, further topping up his glycogen stores
      • Zach took a carbohydrate hit as he stood on the start line by having a PF 30 Energy Gel. This will have hit his bloodstream quickly and spared his stored glycogen stores for use later in the race
      • Throughout the race, Zach took a total of ~841g of carb, averaging ~57g per hour for 14 and ¾ hours. This is a good attempt at fueling, although it does fall below the recommended 60-90g/hr from our Quick Carb Calculator
      • Zach hit these numbers by using a range of energy products and real foods. These real foods can be more satisfying to eat and keep 'flavour fatigue' at bay, especially over extended periods
      • On the bike, Zach ate 11 PF 30 Energy Chews, three PF 30 Energy Gels and one and a half PF 90 Energy Gels. This gave Zach an average carb intake of ~82g/hr, which is towards the upper end of the 60-90g/hr recommendations of our Quick Carb Calculator
      • Zach describes fading a little towards the end of the bike, but doesn’t think this was due to his fueling strategy, and perhaps his reduced long-ride conditioning in training
      • During the run, Zach’s average carb intake per hour dropped significantly to ~35g/hr. Whilst he was feeling good for the first ~22kms, he grabbed some salted potato chips from an aid station which made him feel quite sick shortly after
      • Consequently, Zach was unable to eat for ~5 miles until he could make himself sick, then he was gradually able to resume his carb consumption
      • Eventually, Zach’s stomach could tolerate fuel again, and he took his final energy gel and banana in the last ~7k before the finish


      • Overall, Zach had an eventful debut at the IRONMAN distance, where he battled the hilly course and brutal temperatures
      • His sodium and carb intakes were adequate, but he should aim to increase his fluid intake, especially on the run discipline in his future long-distance triathlons
      • Zach rated his overall race satisfaction as a 6 out of 10 and considered his first tilt at IM racing as a good learning experience, saying “I am positive I lost a lot of time due to a few bad decisions”
      • The advice Zach would give to anyone who’s going into their first IRONMAN, is “don’t eat potato chips on the run if you’ve never done it before, however tempting they may be!”

    Key info

    Zach Josie



    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Full distance
    IRONMAN World Championships
    Utah, USA
    7th May, 2022
    Swim Distance
    3.8km / 2.4mi
    Bike Distance
    180.2km / 112.0mi
    Run Distance
    42.2km / 26.2mi
    Total Distance
    226.2km / 140.6mi
    Bike Elevation
    2,248m / 7,375ft
    Run Elevation
    431m / 1,414ft
    Total Elevation
    2,679m / 8,789ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    Very Hot
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    21°C / 70°F
    Max Temp
    35°C / 95°F
    Avg Temp
    29°C / 84°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Increased sodium concentration from 1000s-1500s. Only an 8 as I had to miss 3 aid stations due to sickness
    Energy levels
    I faded slightly towards the end of the bike and run, but perhaps not due to lack of energy
    Toilet stops
    Once after the swim, once during the bike and once during the run
    GI comfort
    At mile 14 I strayed from my fueling plan and took some potato chips. This was a mistake!
    Twinges but not full-on cramps

    Zach's Thoughts

     For the first time in my triathlon racing I am condifent that I planned my hydration correctly for the whole day

    Zach's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake8416,0366,580331917
    Per hour5740944622
    Bike and Run
    Total intake8105,3616,130331875
    Per hour6241247225
    Total intake6203,9715,200300764
    Per hour8252568740
    Total intake1901,390930311,495
    Per hour352561716

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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