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Line Thams' scorecard

IRONMAN 70.3 Indian Wells

Sunday 5th December, 2021

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 54g

    Carb per hour
  • 570mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 502ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 1,135mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 5.06mg/kg

    Caffeine per bodyweight
  • How Line hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 1500 (Tablet)
    1 x Banana
    1 x Rice cake
    1 x Black coffee
    1 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    *** Try to avoid drinking too much at this point in the race!
    1L x PH 1000 (Tablets)
    1L x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    5 x PF 30 Gel
    600ml x Plain water
    -500ml x Additional fluid in mixed drinks
    2 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    60ml x Plain water
    60ml x Cola
    60ml x Red Bull

    How Line's hydration and fueling went...

      • Line had a tough day out at her last race of the season - IM 70.3 Indian Wells. She unfortunately picked up a bad stomach bug in the days leading up to the race, but she pushed through sickness to finish the course in a time of 4 hours and 32 minutes
      • It was a race of two halves for Line, with a good swim and great bike performance, she led for part of the race. However, the run was a different story; she threw up multiple times, due to the stomach bug and the nature of running meaning her stomach was moving more than on the bike
      • Sadly for Line, she didn’t get the outcome she was looking for, but we applaud her for pushing on to still cross the line. Even though she was ill, she stuck to her solid hydration and fueling plan up until the run, where she couldn’t take anything on board without being sick


      • On the bike, Line drank a 1.5L/51oz bottle containing both PH 1000 and PH 1500 along with a 600ml/20oz bottle of plain water. On the run, she could only stomach two sips of Coca Cola, Red Bull and water, where she would have usually aimed for over ~10 sips of each, similar to what she had at the 70.3 World Champs in Utah where she finished 19th in only her second start inpro middle-distance racing
      • Line drank a total of 2.28L/77oz of fluid during the race, which equates to an average of ~502ml/hr (16oz/hr). However, her run intake was greatly affected by being sick, so focusing on her bike intake alone she consumed an average of ~907ml/hr (31oz/hr). Despite being a higher fluid intake than we see from many triathletes, this is similar to what we saw Line do at the World Champs (~853ml/hr / ~29oz/hr)
      • Line has recently been collating some sweat rate data, which shows her to have a moderate-to-high sweat rate, as she estimated she would lose just under 1.4L/hr (47oz/hr) during the bike leg. Therefore, this high intake is justified to try to replace a good volume of her losses
      • It’s also worth bearing in mind that on top of her sweat losses, Line’s sickness will have contributed to a significant proportion of her body fluids losses too
      • Line came into the office a month prior to IM 70.3 Indian Wells for an Advanced Sweat Test to get a better handle on her sweat sodium losses. She has a moderate sweat sodium concentration of 798mg/L and got sodium onboard from both PH 1000 and PH 1500
      • During the bike leg, Line consumed ~1,098mg of sodium per litre of fluid. Using her estimated sweat rate losses (1.4L/47oz per hour), this would have been a really good strategy during what was a warm race (high of 28°C/82°F), to replace a very high proportion of what she was losing in her sweat (1,101mg/hr)
      • Line rated her hydration strategy as 5 out of 10 saying that it was “good throughout most of the bike but my stomach felt full on the run so I couldn’t drink or eat much”. She mostly stuck to her plan on the bike but had aimed to pick up a couple of bottles of plain water on top of what she had in her bottles. This may have been beneficial to slightly dilute the relative sodium concentration of her intake on the bike 1,211mg/L, but she was still able to get a solid fluid intake without it


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Line mentioned feeling full when she woke up so did not eat her usual large carb-rich breakfast in the morning for the race. She was able to get some fuel on board by eating one banana, a rice cake and she had a coffee, but she knew she was still ‘starting on an empty stomach’
      • Although not the ideal pre-race fueling, as her liver glycogen stores may not have been fully topped up, she was able to eat a caffeine energy gel 10 minutes before the swim to get ~25g more carb in and increase her perceived energy levels (~100mg caffeine)
      • Taking our advice on board from the 70.3 World Champs, Line planned to increase her carb intake from the ~67g/hr she hit in September. She aimed to get over ~70g/hr on average, by reaching over 90g/hr on the bike and over 60g/hr on the run
      • Line stuck to her plan on the bike to hit ~90g/hr carb by consuming five PF 30 Gels and two caffeine energy gels. This is a really great intake, ~17g/hr more than she had on the bike in Utah, while experiencing limited GI issues at this point in the race and having high energy levels
      • After coming off the bike leading, she began to have bad GI issues so was unable to stick to her plan. She was sick multiple times throughout the run and was only able to have two sips of Coca Cola, Red Bull and water (13g carb)
      • This meant on average she hit ~54g carb per hour over the race, just below our recommended 60-90g/hr. But, considering the tough circumstances it was great to see her achieve an impressive high carb intake on the bike
      • Line rated her energy levels as just a 3 out of 10, as unsurprisingly she said they were very low in the last hour when she had thrown up multiple times and was struggling to get any fuel on board
      • In terms of caffeine, Line drank a black coffee before the race and then consumed a total of 324mg in the form of caffeine gels during and just prior to the race. This is a good caffeine dose that falls towards the upper end of the recommended dose of 3-6mg/kg body weight (5.06mg/kg). This will have helped keep Line’s perceived energy levels up, which was especially important in this race where she was unable to pre-fuel and consume carbs on the run effectively


      • Line rated her race satisfaction as a low 2 out of 10 due to not reaching the goals she was aiming for, including qualifying for the World Champs next year. Due to picking up a nasty stomach bug that left her ill for a few days after the race too, Line couldn’t perform as she had hoped to on the run
      • Now Line has a good idea of her losses (she has had an Advanced Sweat Test and collected some sweat rate data) we have dialled in her hydration and fueling strategy and we are looking forward to seeing what she can achieve as she continues to develop and use this data next season

    Key info

    Line Thams

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IRONMAN 70.3 Indian Wells
    California, USA
    5th December, 2021
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi
    Bike Elevation
    161m / 528ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    12°C / 54°F
    Max Temp
    28°C / 82°F
    Avg Temp
    22°C / 72°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Great early on and on the bike but could hardly take anything on board during the run
    Energy levels
    Good for the swim and bike, but terrible on the run
    Toilet stops
    GI comfort
    Stomach bug lead to being sick on the run
    Twinges but not full-on cramps

    Line's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake2462,5882,2803241,135
    Per hour5457050271
    Bike and Run
    Total intake2212,5662,2802241,126
    Per hour5563656556
    Total intake2082,5432,1002001,211
    Per hour901,09890786
    Total intake132318024130
    Per hour81410514

    Data Confidence







    There is good confidence in the accuracy of the data reported. An athlete feels that the numbers closely reflect what they consumed despite a couple of estimations which may carry some degree of error. The majority of what was consumed is recorded to a high level of specificity (most volumes are known through the use of bottles brands quantities flavours). The numbers are very plausible and align with previous data recordings (if an athlete has collected data previously).

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