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Emma Pallant-Browne

Pro

IM 70.3 Oceanside

6th April, 2024
USA
California
2nd, FPRO
Triathlon, Middle distance - 113.1km
10°C
, Cold
4hrs 20mins
more race details

Emma's headline numbers

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?
?
~48
g
Carb per hour
Recommended 90g/h+
~552
ml
Fluid per hour
Recommended 250-750ml/h
~997
mg
Sodium per litre
Recommended 500-900mg/L
0
mg
Total caffeine
Image Credits: Jordan Bryden, Jaryd Browne

Emma's strategy

Fueling

Carbohydrate is the main fuel you burn when racing. Failing to fuel properly is a leading cause of underperformance in longer races.

Carb-loaded
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T - 1-4hrs: Ate a carb rich meal (Low in fat & fibre)
pre-fueled
?
T - 15mins: Took in a final dose of carb
Carb per hour
Recommended 90g/h+
~48
g
Emma's Energy Rating
8
/10
"Even though I got the majority of my carbs during the second half of the bike, I never had any stomach issues. I probably had nothing for the first 50 minutes, then took the lot as I knew it would be a hard run."
Our thoughts

Emma has shown before that in cold conditions she struggles to drink much. As 120g of the 150g of carbohydrates she carried on the bike were in her drinks, it was vital she attempted to drink all of it to prevent underfueling. By taking ~61g per hour during the bike, Emma fell short of the 90g/h scientific recommendations for an event of this nature. She has, however, been training her gut to now tolerate on the bike what she took in total during similar temperatures at the 2022 World 70.3 Champs, marking a significant improvement. Having shown time and time again that her fairly strong carb load is a key part of her strategy, this race was no exception and set her up well for another hard battle. Emma may find it helpful to carry some spare PF 30 Gels on her bike in case she finds herself struggling to drink during future cold races, and ensure she doesn’t restrict her fueling as a consequence.

Hydration

Taking on board an appropriate amount of fluid and sodium is essential to maintaining blood volume and supporting the cardiovascular effort needed to perform on race day.

Whilst the absolute amount of sodium and fluid consumed per hour is important, it’s critical to consider these in relation to each other. This is known as 'relative sodium concentration' and it’s expressed in milligrams per litre (mg/L). How much sodium you’re taking in per litre of fluid is more important than the absolute amount taken in per hour.

Emma716mg/L
Emma has been Sweat Tested to dial in her hydration plan

Sweat sodium concentration (mg/L) is largely genetically determined and remains relatively stable. Knowing how salty your sweat is enables you to replace a good proportion of your sweat losses, which can range from 200-2,000mg/L.

Whilst Emma’s losses are on the low side, getting her hydration strategy right is still important if she wants to perform at her best.

Learn more
Pre-loaded electrolytes
?
T - 60mins: Drank ~500ml of strong electrolyte drink
Fluid per hour
Recommended 250-750ml/h
~552
ml
Sodium per litre
Recommended 500-900mg/L
~997
mg
Emma's Hydration Rating
7
/10
"I struggled to drink much during the early part of the bike as it was so cold. As it warmed up, though, I made sure I got all my drinks down and felt great as a result."
Our thoughts

As you can see from her low sweat sodium concentration, Emma’s sodium intake was less of a priority than it might be for other athletes. In addition, the low temperatures (average ~10℃ / ~50℉) meant she was likely not sweating much, which further reduced her requirement to drink. By using the PF Carb & Electrolyte Drink Mix, which has a relative sodium concentration of 1,000mg/L, Emma was successfully “over-salted” compared to her sweat concentration during the bike, which will have “front-loaded” her sodium intake ahead of a planned lower intake during the run. In slightly warmer temperatures she would have picked up some plain water on course and diluted this concentration down, so we wouldn’t recommend changing any part of her hydration strategy. During the run, Emma’s strategy was to rely on cups of isotonic drink and plain water, further topping up her fluid and electrolyte intake, and likely did a decent job as she suffered no ill effects of dehydration, and clocked the fastest run split of the day.

How Emma hit her numbers

Here's everything that Emma ate and drank on the day...

Emma's weapons of choice

Final thoughts

Emma's Satisfaction Rating
8
/10
I was pleased with how well I maintained my focus during the race, especially with the two adverse incidents on the bike where I briefly went off course, and then was disqualified for speeding, before being reinstated. I had no stomach issues at all even though I took most of my nutrition within the last two hours of racing, which I’m really pleased about.
Emma
Emma has been through several iterations of trial and error with her nutrition strategy, as she tries to balance her high fluid losses in warm conditions, and her struggle to eat much. To further develop her strategy, and perhaps facilitate additional performance benefits, adding some non-liquid carbs like Gels or Chews may avoid the conflict with fluid-based carbs when temperatures are low, and boost her overall energy availability.
PF&H

Emma's full stats

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?
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Overall
208g total carb
48g per hour
2,400ml total fluid
552ml per hour
2,393mg total sodium
550mg per hour
997mg
Sodium per litre
Bike and Run
Bike
Run

Data Confidence
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We rate each of our case studies from 1-5 based on the level of accuracy, and our confidence in the data.
1
2
3
4
5

There is some confidence in the quantities and brands of products consumed but the data may lack specifics (e.g. volumes specific flavours). A high number of estimations have been made and the room for error is moderate-high. There may also be the possibility that some intake has been grossly over- or under-estimated.

Emma's recent case studies

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