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Emma Pallant-Browne's scorecard

IM 70.3 World Championship

Saturday 18th September, 2021

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 48g

    Carb per hour
  • 434mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 536ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 810mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 145mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Emma hit those numbers

    1L x PH 500 (Drink Mix)
    4 x Slices of white toast with honey
    1 x Energy bar (22g carb)
    375ml x Plain water
    1 x Energy chew packet (48g carb, 75mg caffeine)
    *** Review technique if drinking much at this point!
    500ml x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    750ml x Additional fluid in mixed drinks
    2 x Energy drink mix (60g carb)
    1 x Energy shot with caffeine (48g carb, 75mg caffeine)
    500ml x Plain water
    500ml x Energy drink (22g carb)

    How Emma's hydration and fueling went...

      • Emma felt that this was her poorest race of the 2021 season. She reported not having her best swim, felt in control and easy when catching some of her fellow competitors on the bike, but lacked energy during the run
      • From a fueling and hydration standpoint it doesn't look like Emma changed anything drastically when comparing her plan to previous races, but she might have been on the lighter side of the recommended carbohydrate guidelines


      • Emma consumed around ~434mg/hr sodium and ~536ml/hr fluid which equates to a relative sodium concentration of ~810mg/L. Given Emma has a relatively moderate sweat sodium concentration of 716mg/L but a high sweat rate, this is a pretty good level of replacement
      • The volumes of fluid that Emma consumed on the run are estimates and should be read with some caution. She reported picking up a cup of water and energy drink at each aid station (of which there were 12 in total) and taking around 2 sips from each cup. We estimated this as ~500ml (~17oz) of each type of fluid over the run, but there may be a relatively high degree of error in these assumptions
      • Emma felt she drank enough during the race. Other than an early pee during the swim, she didn’t pee throughout the race which is a good sign she wasn’t drinking too much. Whether she was under drinking is harder to determine without knowing body weight change but drinking ~543ml/hr (~18oz/hr) on the bike should have been adequate
      • That said, in previous races of similar durations we have seen Emma drink closer to ~800ml/hr (~27oz/hr) on the bike and so this decrease in fluid consumption on the bike may have also had some impact upon how Emma felt during the run
      • Emma’s sodium intake throughout the race looks solid. She reported experiencing some sensations of muscle cramp in her calves during the uphills on the run but could push through. Cramping under these circumstances may be linked more closely to fatigue or excessive loading of the muscle rather than a fluid/sodium imbalance or deficit


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • The Quick Carb Calculator recommended Emma consume 30 grams of carbohydrate in the final 30 minutes before the race. This is a practice that Emma routinely follows and she did take one stroopwaffle and a packet of caffeinated energy chews in the final hour before this race
      • For an event of this duration and intensity, Emma was aiming to consume between 60 and 90 grams of carbohydrate per hour. On the bike, Emma fell within that range nicely by consuming an average of ~74g of carb per hour. But her carb intake was much lower on the run - ~22g/hr - and that meant her average intake across the whole race fell to a relatively low ~48g/hr
      • Emma said she felt strong and like she had enough energy during the bike leg, but felt “flat” during the run. In the past, we’ve seen Emma take a gel or two during the run and this might have been beneficial to her fueling intake in St George


      • Overall, Emma reported that this was a poor race for her and ranked her race satisfaction at a 4 out of 10
      • It appears that Emma may have under fueled somewhat during this race, though this is something she has done before in races where she has performed better, so this may not entirely explain her performance on this occasion

    Key info

    Emma Pallant-Browne

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 World Championship
    St George, Utah, USA
    18th September, 2021
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi
    Bike Elevation
    835m / 2,740ft
    Run Elevation
    833m / 2,733ft
    Total Elevation
    1,668m / 5,472ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    Min Temp
    20°C / 68°F
    Max Temp
    30°C / 86°F
    Avg Temp
    25°C / 77°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Energy levels
    On the bike my energy levels were a 9/10 but only a 2/10 on the run
    Toilet stops
    At the start of the swim only
    GI comfort
    Mild cramps that I could push through

    Emma's Thoughts

     I just can't really work out why I felt like I did, in this race. Just so so flat. Training has been amazing and I felt great going into it. I didn't have my best swim but felt so in control and easy on the bike. Then on the run I just had nothing. Really weird race

    Emma's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake2001,8232,250145810
    Per hour4843453635
    Bike and Run
    Total intake2001,8232,250145810
    Per hour5449561139
    Total intake1701,3921,2501451,114
    Per hour7460554363
    Total intake314311,0000431
    Per hour223117230

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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