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Leon Chevalier's scorecard


Sunday 4th July, 2021

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 79g

    Carb per hour
  • 172mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 497ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 347mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 362mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Leon hit those numbers

    250g x Banana bread
    1 x Black tea
    1 x Energy gel with caffeine (22g carb, 75mg caffeine)
    *** Tip: For sea swims, put a bottle of water at T1 to rinse your mouth out
    3 x PH Electrolyte Capsule
    2 x PF 30 Gel
    1.5L x Additional fluid in mixed drinks
    1.5L x Energy drink mix (79g carb)
    1 x Energy gel with caffeine (22g carb, 75mg caffeine)
    1 x Snickers
    4 x PF 30 Gel
    1 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    1.4L x Coca Cola Original
    1 x Banana

    How Leon's hydration and fueling went...

      • This was Leon's first time covering the full IM race distance and he performed superbly, both in terms of hitting his hydration and fueling numbers and his overall race result, placing 3rd in a time of 8 hours 51 minutes


      • Here’s what Leon had to say about his hydration strategy: “I stuck to the plan pretty much to the letter. Was going to get water from aid stations in the last hour of the bike but because it was so cold and I had urinated (therefore had water just in excess), I adjusted and kept some of my bottled fluids for the last hour. Never felt dehydrated.”
      • Leon had a good awareness of the conditions and that his sweat rate wasn’t too high and therefore had a fluid intake of ~500ml/hr (~17oz/hr), an adequate intake in the mild conditions. He didn’t suffer from any hydration-related issues and had a fantastic race
      • Leon reported having one pee around 4 hours into the bike leg as he had drank most of his water bottles but wasn't sweating much (FYI it’s quite normal for athletes to pee during such long events, what you want to watch out for is excessive peeing, this is an indicator that you might be overdrinking!)
      • The relative sodium concentration Leon consumed over the course of the race was just ~320mg/L. Although he reported not sweating excessively due to the cooler conditions, he has a high sweat sodium concentration of 1,392mg/L and therefore was only replacing a small proportion of the sodium he will have been losing during the race. Especially in hotter conditions, Leon should consider increasing his sodium intake to stay well hydrated so he can perform at his best


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Leon went into the race with his fuel stores well topped up and perceived energy levels high having consumed a carb-rich breakfast with some tea and then having a energy gel with caffeine just before the start of the swim. Learn more
      • Leon’s strategy was to use his pre-mixed energy drink to get him through the first four hours, which he reported he managed perfectly by drinking every 10-20 minutes
      • As we’ve seen Leon do before, he took a final gel right towards the end of the bike which is a nice strategy to pre-empt the run
      • On the run, Leon’s plan was to take one gel every ~7k and he stuck to this plan from about 30 minutes into the run until about 35km
      • His diligent approach to getting gels and drink mix on board contributed to his good overall carb intake of ~78 grams per hour for the race which is within our Quick Carb Calculator recommended range for a race of this length
      • Increasing his carb intake further to push towards 90g/hr while avoiding any GI issues would be ideal due to the trend evidence shows between carbohydrate intake and performance


      • Overall, Leon enjoyed a fine debut IM outing in Bolton using a practical hydration and nutrition strategy which he adapted to the cool conditions
      • He fuelled well both pre and during the race but moving forwards, he could look to increase his sodium intake to replace a greater proportion of the sodium he is losing in his sweat, especially in races where the conditions are hotter

    Key info

    Leon Chevalier

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    Very High
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Full distance
    IRONMAN Bolton
    Bolton, England
    4th July, 2021
    Swim Distance
    3.8km / 2.4mi
    Bike Distance
    180.2km / 112.0mi
    Run Distance
    42.2km / 26.2mi
    Total Distance
    226.2km / 140.6mi
    Bike Elevation
    2,362m / 7,749ft
    Run Elevation
    380m / 1,247ft
    Total Elevation
    2,742m / 8,996ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    Min Temp
    13°C / 55°F
    Max Temp
    19°C / 66°F
    Avg Temp
    18°C / 64°F

    Athlete feedback

    Hydration rating

    Leon's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake6961,5254,400362347
    Per hour7917249741
    Bike and Run
    Total intake6741,5094,400287343
    Per hour8619155836
    Total intake3541,4873,00075496
    Per hour7230060615
    Total intake320231,40021216
    Per hour109847772

    Data Confidence







    There is good confidence in the accuracy of the data reported. An athlete feels that the numbers closely reflect what they consumed despite a couple of estimations which may carry some degree of error. The majority of what was consumed is recorded to a high level of specificity (most volumes are known through the use of bottles brands quantities flavours). The numbers are very plausible and align with previous data recordings (if an athlete has collected data previously).

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