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Leon Chevalier's scorecard

IRONMAN Mallorca

Saturday 16th October, 2021

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 96g

    Carb per hour
  • 409mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 613ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 666mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 1,005mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Leon hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 1500 (Tablet)
    500ml x Black tea
    300g x Banana bread
    1 x Energy gel with caffeine (22g carb, 75mg caffeine)
    *** Try to avoid drinking too much at this point in the race!
    500ml x PH 1000 (Drink Mix)
    1L x PH 1500 (Drink Mix)
    1 x PH Electrolyte Capsule
    2 x PF 30 Gel
    1.5L x Plain water
    -1025ml x Additional fluid in mixed drinks
    1 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    4 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    1L x Energy drink mix (79g carb)
    2 x Energy gel with caffeine (22g carb, 75mg caffeine)
    2 x Snickers
    1 x Hard boiled sweet
    2 x PF 30 Gel
    1.5L x Plain water
    2 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    3 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    200ml x Cola
    200ml x Red Bull

    How Leon's hydration and fueling went...

      • Coming to the end of a hugely successful racing season, Leon raced his third full distance IM of the year (and third ever). Beating tough competition and setting a new course record, Leon had a fantastic race, winning in under 8 hours!
      • Leon planned to use his well developed hydration and fuelling plan but contradictory to what the race outcome portrays, not everything went exactly to plan
      • At the start of the bike, he dropped one of his 1L bottles containing PH1500, PH1000 and an energy drink mix, before he had drunk any of it! Focusing on the loss of carb, Leon was aware he would therefore need to adjust and pick up 110g carb (~5 gels) from aid stations to reach the level of intake he usually achieves with the bottle


      • On average, Leon consumed ~613ml/22oz of fluid per hour across the whole race. On the bike, this intake was from two bottles containing energy drink mix and PH electrolytes along with two 750ml bottles of water which he picked up. Then on the run he drank water at most aid stations and occasionally drank Coca Cola or Redbull as well
      • Despite dropping a bottle, this seems to be an adequate fluid intake. Although we do not know Leon’s sweat rate this volume of fluid is similar to what we have seen him consume successfully in past races, like at Embrunman
      • Leon did not pee during the race which he did do once in both his previous long course triathlons. This could portray slight under hydration because we would expect him to pee in a race of this length
      • Due to dropping his bottle containing 1,250mg sodium and not adjusting his plan to account for this, Leon’s sodium consumption was lower than he had planned. He consumed ~409mg/hr sodium whereas at Embrunman he consumed ~665mg/hr sodium. Although not drastically different and still replacing a proportion of what he will have been losing, in relation to the amount of fluid he was drinking the relative sodium concentration of his intake was ~666mg/L. Taking into account Leon’s high sweat sodium concentration (1,392mg/L) and the warm conditions a greater amount of sodium could have been beneficial, for example in the form of PH Electrolyte capsules
      • Leon struggled in the last 40 minutes of the race and said he “clearly bonked”. Considering his high carb intake this is more likely to relate to under doing his sodium intake. We would recommend he increase sodium intake to replace a greater amount of what he would have been losing to hopefully avoid the dip he had at the end of the run


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • As we have seen Leon do before previous races, he ate a carb rich breakfast and met the Quick Carb Calculator's recommendations of 30g carb 15 minutes before the swim by consuming an energy gel with caffeine. This will have topped up his fuel stores well and given him perceived high energy levels on the start line
      • Leon made some changes to his plan before the race to make sure he would be reaching around 400g of carbohydrate on the bike (110g/hr) however dropping his bottle greatly impacted this. Intelligently, he was aware of the rough carb numbers he lost in the bottle so chose to pick up 5 extra gels from aid stations
      • By consuming two bottles containing energy drink mix and also having 16 gels over the whole race, Leon had a carb intake of around ~96g/hr (learn more about consuming over 90g/hr carb). This is an excellent carb intake which is higher than at both of his previous long course ironmans. We have seen a positive increase this year from Bolton (~78g/hr) to Embrunman (~87g/hr) and now to Mallorca with an overall carb increase of 23%
      • This is a great positive trend because evidence suggests a higher carb intake can relate to better performance as long as GI issues can be avoided. It is also excellent to see Leon achieve this intake even though he had to adjust at the last minute and to avoid GI issues he said “when I felt a bit overloaded I gave myself 10-15 minutes of no food and drink to settle down”
      • His intake broke down into a higher ~120g/hr on the bike and ~82g/hr on the run. As Leon has done before and we would recommend, a higher intake on the bike to frontload on carbs is ideal to make sure he was well fuelled going into the run
      • Leon did not get to choose the variety of gels he was picking up and as a result consumed many caffeinated gels. Because of this, Leon’s overall caffeine intake was a very high dose of ~1,005mg. This equates to around 2.5 times the recommended dose! Estimating his bodyweight, this dose is 14.8mg/kg BW where the recommended is between 3-6mg/kg BW
      • Leon was aware his caffeine intake was higher than normal but did not mention experiencing any side effects of this saying his heart rate “didn’t feel out of order”. He did say that he had some trouble sleeping afterwards which could be a side effect of the high dose, but he didn’t believe that it was necessarily linked to the caffeine because this isn’t unusual for him after race day


      • Leon had a superb performance at IM Mallorca adjusting on the fly to hit solid numbers. He said “I couldn’t have hoped for a better outcome and I’m sure there’s still room to do way better if all goes to plan (but it rarely does!)”
      • As to be expected he is happy with the outcome. He focused on replacing his carb intake and “didn’t think too much about the electrolytes lost” when he dropped the bottle and looking back on the race he agrees with our views that “not enough electrolyte might explain the boking towards the end”

    Key info

    Leon Chevalier

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    Very High
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Full distance
    IRONMAN Mallorca
    Alcudia, Mallorca
    16th October, 2021
    Swim Distance
    3.8km / 2.4mi
    Bike Distance
    180.2km / 112.0mi
    Run Distance
    42.2km / 26.2mi
    Total Distance
    226.2km / 140.6mi
    Bike Elevation
    1,920m / 6,299ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    14°C / 57°F
    Max Temp
    23°C / 73°F
    Avg Temp
    20°C / 68°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Toilet stops
    GI comfort
    When I felt a bit overloaded I give myself 10-15mins of no drink/food to settle down
    No cramping

    Leon's Thoughts

     It was a hard fought one but definitely worth it in the end. Not much could have gone better outcome-wise...although it was far from being smooth sailing all along.

    Leon's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake7603,2484,8751,005666
    Per hour96409613126
    Bike and Run
    Total intake7383,2334,875930663
    Per hour104458690132
    Total intake5103,0512,9755501,026
    Per hour119712695128
    Total intake2281821,90038096
    Per hour8265683137

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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