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Livia Eggler's scorecard

IRONMAN Switzerland

Sunday 9th July, 2023

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 53g

    Carb per hour
  • 307mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 428ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 716mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 6.38mg/kg

    Caffeine per bodyweight
  • How Livia hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 1500 (Tablet)
    2 x Slices of White Bread with Almond Butter and Marmalade
    1 x PF 30 Energy Gel
    *** Tip: For sea swims, put a bottle of water at T1 to rinse your mouth out
    1L x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    9.5 x PF 30 Energy Gel
    2 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    1L x Plain water
    500ml x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    4 x PF 30 Energy Gel
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    1.68L x Plain water
    200ml x Electrolyte drink mix (343mg sodium)
    1 x Orange slice

    How Livia's hydration and fueling went...

      • Livia was the first of the 2023 Zwift Tri Academy to let rip on the shiny new Zwift bikes. She took on only her third IRONMAN to date and her first with the nutritional support of the team here at PF&H
      • She has previously raced at the IRONMAN World Championships in Kona, Hawaii in 2019, and knows the hydration challenges she will face on the Big Island
      • Thankfully, Livia booked her ticket back to Kona for the 2023 World Championships by finishing second overall amateur in Switzerland. Unexpectedly high temperatures in Thun (peaks of 34℃ / 94℉) offered a small insight to the extreme conditions expected back in Kona, and despite no specific heat preparation, Livia coped well


      • Ahead of the race, Livia spent several weeks getting familiar with the concept of preloading her sodium levels, to arrive at each of her long training sessions optimally hydrated. This allowed her to train to her potential, and she employed the same tactic before her race by drinking 500ml (16oz) of PH 1500 both the night before, and again with her race-day breakfast
      • Livia knows her sweat is relatively salty, with a sodium concentration of 1,290 milligrams per litre (mg/32oz). As a result, she was very aware that matching this concentration with her drinks would help her stay hydrated during the race
      • To achieve this, she added three PH 1500 Tablets to the ~2L (64oz) of fluid she drank on the bike, to create a very similar average concentration of ~1,125mg/L (mg/32oz)
      • During the run, however, her sodium concentration dropped significantly, as she increased the quantity of water she picked up from aid stations in an attempt to combat the rising temperatures
      • Despite running out of transition two with a Soft Flask of PH 1500, Livia then drank a further ~1.6L (56oz) of plain water throughout the marathon, meaning her relative sodium concentration fell to just ~373mg/L (mg/32oz)
      • As she did such a good job of preloading before the race, and maintaining a solid concentration on the bike, Livia didn’t experience any negative side-effects of this diluted concentration
      • For future races, especially those in the heat, Livia may want to take some Electrolyte Capsules with her out of transition, and taking one for every ~200ml (6oz) she drinks, just in case she finds herself drinking more water than planned


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • The days before the race saw Livia’s diet shift slightly to reduce the fibre and fat contributions while increasing the carbohydrate content to ensure she started the race optimally fueled for battle
      • This culminated with another high-carb meal on race morning, consisting of two slices of white bread, some almond butter and a good helping of marmalade. This will have topped off her stored energy in the form of glycogen, before she optimised her circulating energy in the form of blood glucose with a PF 30 Gel ~15 minutes before the swim start
      • Livia has struggled previously with taking the amounts of carbohydrates that the literature suggests is optimal for a race of this duration and intensity, largely due to being a “pocket rocket” at just ~47kg (103lbs). She has, however, been undertaking some rigorous gut training in some of her long, race specific training sessions to help increase this tolerance
      • During the bike this enabled her to consume ~64g of carb per hour in the form of PF 30 Gels and Caffeine Gels. This equates to ~1.4g per kg of bodyweight, which is an impressive intake
      • On the run this intake fell slightly to ~49g per hour, which is still greater than 1 gram per kg, but below the 60-90g per hour recommended by our Fuel Planner
      • Livia subjectively felt her energy levels were “superb” on the bike and most of the run. She experienced a dip in performance towards the end of the run, which she believes was due to her low run mileage as a result of a recent injury
      • For future races, and in the build up to Kona, Livia is going to continue undertaking “gut training” sessions to increase her tolerance to slightly higher carbohydrate intakes, as she’s already noticed a significant improvement in her session quality and recovery since beginning to up the carbs


      • Livia got her Zwift Academy journey off to a flying start, crushing her fuel and hydration strategy, whilst leaving a few bits to optimise before the big dance in Hawaii later in the year
      • Livia will test her nutrition strategy a few more times before the IRONMAN World Championships, mainly at some local Bundesliga triathlons, and perhaps another middle distance race to test herself over some higher intensity races. Hopefully her run injury will be far behind her by then, and she’ll be able to show her impressive running pedigree

    Key info

    Livia Eggler

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Full distance
    IRONMAN Switzerland
    Thun, Switzerland
    9th July, 2023
    Swim Distance
    3.8km / 2.4mi
    Bike Distance
    180.2km / 112.0mi
    Run Distance
    42.2km / 26.2mi
    Total Distance
    226.2km / 140.6mi
    Bike Elevation
    2,200m / 7,218ft
    Run Elevation
    78m / 256ft
    Total Elevation
    2,278m / 7,474ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    Very Hot
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    15°C / 59°F
    Max Temp
    34°C / 93°F
    Avg Temp
    27°C / 81°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Energy levels
    Toilet stops
    GI comfort
    No issues, except at ~36km when I needed the toilet
    No cramping

    Livia's Thoughts

     Considering I wasn't able to run two weeks before this race, I am more than happy with the outcome

    Livia's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake5463,1374,380300716
    Per hour5330742829
    Bike and Run
    Total intake5163,1374,380300716
    Per hour5835549534
    Total intake3502,2502,0002001,125
    Per hour6441036536
    Total intake1668872,380100373
    Per hour4926470730

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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