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Matthew Marquardt's scorecard

IRONMAN 70.3 World Championships

Friday 28th October, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 126g

    Carb per hour
  • 672mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 972ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 692mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 4.10mg/kg

    Caffeine per bodyweight
  • How Matthew hit those numbers

    1 x Cup of Oatmeal
    1 x Cup of Berries
    4 x Eggs (3 whites, 1 whole)
    340ml x Protein Shake
    1 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    500ml x Energy drink mix serving (29g carb)
    *** Tip: For sea swims, put a bottle of water at T1 to rinse your mouth out
    473ml x Plain water
    2 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    1 x Energy gel with caffeine (25g carb, 100mg caffeine)
    1 x Energy gel (22g carb)
    500ml x Energy drink mix serving (58g carb)
    1.33L x Energy drink (36g carb)
    500ml x Lemon and Lime Energy Drink Mix (100g Carb)
    2 x Electrolyte Capsules (215mg Sodium)
    550ml x Plain water
    2 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    2 x Energy gel with caffeine (25g carb, 100mg caffeine)
    350ml x Energy drink (22g carb)
    200ml x Coca Cola Original
    1 x Electrolyte Capsules (215mg Sodium)

    How Matthew's hydration and fueling went...

      • Less than three weeks after securing 1st in his age group at the IRONMAN World Championships in Kona, Matthew was looking to replicate his performance at the IM 70.3 World Championships in St. George, Utah
      • After experiencing a “bag mix up” and bike gear issue in transition one, Matthew said he was “playing catch up” from early on in the race
      • Matthew was able to secure a respectable 3rd place, despite multiple setbacks. His solid fuel and hydration plan, which he executed as closely as possible despite the cold conditions, would have contributed to this strong performance on the day


      • We would have liked to see Matthew preload with a strong electrolyte drink like PH 1500 to ensure he started the race optimally hydrated. But on this occasion he relied on electrolyte intake through his food, sports drink and lactose free milk on the morning of the race
      • Matthew planned to follow a similar hydration strategy to his performance in Kona during this event, which was ~22°C / 72°F colder on average. The difference in environmental conditions was reflected by a reduced sweat rate, meaning he could drop his average fluid intake by ~16%, from ~1.16L (39oz) per hour in Hawaii to ~972ml (31oz) per hour in Utah without experiencing any hydration related issues
      • While on the bike, Matthew used a range of energy drinks to meet his fluid and energy needs, averaging ~1.05L (33oz) per hour. Then, on the run all of his fluid came from aid station water, energy drink and Coca Cola collections giving an average of ~846ml/h (28oz/h)
      • This fluid intake was relatively high when compared to other athletes racing in St George in extremely cold conditions (~ 7℃ / 45°F average), like pro female and PF&H ambassador, Emma Pallant-Browne who drank just ~288ml/h (9oz/h) when racing the day before
      • Matthew explained his mindset behind this by saying “no matter the weather, cold or hot, my top priority was to execute my race strategy. It can be really difficult to eat and drink when it is so cold and your hands barely work, but I know from experience in training and racing that getting in enough fluid and fuel is crucial to perform. Even though it was at times unpleasant to eat or drink, I knew that it was required for success and that losing as a result of not following the race plan would hurt even more”
      • Across the race, largely through the use of salt capsules, Matthew was able to maintain a relative sodium concentration of ~672mg/L (mg/32oz). This value is certainly close to his own sweat sodium concentration of 655mg/L (mg/32oz) as determined by a Sweat Test, and would have replaced a good proportion of his losses across the race
      • Matthew did experience some cramping when transitioning from the bike to run, but it’s unlikely to be due to hydration on this occasion because of his appropriate intake. It’s more likely to have occurred due to one of the many other factors, such as accumulated muscle fatigue, which are thought to cause cramps
      • With strong physical performances both on the bike and the run, Matthew was able to rate his hydration strategy 8 (out of 10)


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Matthew approached this race with a very similar strategy to the one he used in Kona, with the same high carb breakfast the morning of the event. He was then able to top off his blood glucose with an energy drink mix and energy gel within the last half an hour, sparing some stored energy for utilisation later in the race
      • With a varied intake of both ‘slow release’ starch and rapidly absorbed glucose:fructose carb sources, Matthew was able to average an impressive ~126g carb per hour of the race, peaking at ~145g/h on the bike, before dropping down to ~110g/h while running
      • Matthew was able to tolerate a very similar intake to this (120g/h) in the extreme conditions of Kona with no GI distress whatsoever. This is a prime example of an athlete benefiting from gut training to allow for higher carb intakes
      • As a Supersapeins ambassador, Matthew is able to access in-depth information regarding his glucose levels during the event. On this occasion his his glucose trace highlighted how much energy he had available to him throughout the race, as he was well and truly in the ‘performance zone’
      • Matthew was also able to sensibly utilise the ergogenic benefits associated with caffeine, through the use of caffeine gels, periodically spaced out in his strategy. This allowed him to achieve ~4.1mg per kilo of bodyweight, which is within the general scientific recommendation of 3-6 mg/kg


      • Despite riding his way back to the front of the race after his T1 mishaps, it wasn’t long until Matthew lost his chain and experienced frustrating delays yet again. In the end he only finished 45 seconds behind 1st place, meaning on another day he may have been crowned a double age group World Champion within just three weeks
      • Overall, Matthew did really well from both a fueling and hydration point of view, with appropriate sodium intake relative to his individual needs. In the future we’d like to see how his perceived hydration levels might change after preloading with electrolytes
      • Going forward, Matthew has the opportunity to work with the PF&H Sports Science team and optimise his strategy further with some time to experiment in the off season. Overall, he’s satisfied with what he’s been able to achieve this season and “can’t wait to race again in 2023”

    Key info

    Matthew Marquardt

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IRONMAN 70.3 World Championships
    St George, USA
    28th October, 2022
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    2°C / 36°F
    Max Temp
    11°C / 52°F
    Avg Temp
    7°C / 45°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Energy levels
    I had a low point during the back half of the swim but felt good on the bike and run
    GI comfort
    No GI Distress of any kind
    Twinges but not full-on cramps

    Matthew's Thoughts

      It’s always frustrating when a performance is negatively impacted by factors other than the body’s ability to perform, but unfortunately the things that happened to me do happen, and it’s a learning experience to make sure it never happens again.

    Matthew's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake5072,7013,903316692
    Per hour12667297279
    Bike and Run
    Total intake4612,5113,403316738
    Per hour13271797290
    Total intake3191,9132,303100831
    Per hour1458691,04745
    Total intake1435981,100216544
    Per hour110460846166

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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