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Sam Appleton's scorecard

IM 70.3 Geelong

Sunday 20th February, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 54g

    Carb per hour
  • 443mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 448ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 988mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 4.09mg/kg

    Caffeine per bodyweight
  • How Sam hit those numbers

    300ml x Plain water
    1/3 x Cup of coffee
    1 x White chocolate muffin
    *** Tip: For sea swims, put a bottle of water at T1 to rinse your mouth out
    750ml x PH 1000 (Tablets)
    300ml x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    3 x PF 30 Gel
    1 x Energy gel with caffeine (24g carb, 50mg caffeine)
    2 x Energy gel with caffeine (24g carb, 72mg caffeine)
    300ml x Plain water
    300ml x Cola

    How Sam's hydration and fueling went...

      • Sam had a fantastic start to the season at IM 70.3 Geelong, finishing in 3 hours and 41 minutes to claim top spot on the podium! Against tough Aussie competitors, Sam raced well in the mild race conditions, using a hydration and fueling plan that he’s refined over several months
      • Reflecting on the race, Sam was especially happy with the run leg after making a commitment to improve it in the off season. He said, “everything went to plan, more or less! I am happy with where I am this early in the season and this is a great stepping stone into the 2022 season”


      • Sam used his normal strategy of carrying two bottles on the bike, one 750ml/25oz bottle containing PH 1000 and one 450ml/15oz bottle containing PH 1500 which he didn’t finish. Then on the run, Sam had a mouthful (~30ml/1oz) of water and Coca Cola at each aid station (10 aid stations)
      • In total, he drank ~1.65L/56oz, equating to ~448ml/hr (15oz/hr) on average. This is a similar volume to what we’ve seen Sam drink during his previous 70.3 races, though slightly less than the World Champs and Oceanside as he didn’t finish his 450ml/15oz bottle on the bike and there were less aid stations on the run
      • Despite this, Sam described his sweat rate as moderate in the mild conditions (16℃/61°F), therefore drinking over 400ml/hr is a seemingly adequate amount to keep on top of his losses and is slightly higher than he managed to drink at both the Collins Cup and Boulder 70.3 in similar conditions last season
      • As always, Sam took on a solid amount of sodium in the fluid he drank to replace a high proportion of his sweat sodium losses. He consumed ~443mg of sodium per hour, which meant the relative sodium concentration of his intake was ~988mg/L
      • Sam has a moderate sweat sodium concentration of 655mg/L, so he replaced his losses well and didn’t cramp at all during the race. He was happy with his overall hydration strategy, rating it 7 out of 10, saying he did want to finish both of his bottles on the bike. When conditions get hotter later on this year, and his fluid losses are therefore higher, this will be important


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Sam had his usual pre-race breakfast of a muffin along with some plain water and a coffee. Although this might seem to be on the ‘lighter’ side for many athletes, this is Sam’s go-to pre-race meal (other than a change in muffin flavour this time around) and will have topped up his glycogen stores before the early race start of 7:00am
      • For a final fuel top up, Sam could consider having a gel in the last 30 minutes pre-race as we saw him do at a few races last year, including the IM 70.3 World Champs. The purpose of this final gel is to hit his bloodstream quickly, maximising carbohydrate availability, and sparing his glycogen stores for later in the race
      • During the race, Sam consumed an average of ~54g of carbohydrate per hour. This broke down into a higher ~82g/hr on the bike, from 3 x PF 30 Energy Gels and 3 x Energy gels with caffeine, compared to ~26g/hr on the run from a small volume of Coca Cola
      • This front-loading technique is often used successfully in triathlon races and, in middle distance events especially, we’ve found that such a significant drop in carbohydrate intake (~56g/hr difference) isn’t uncommon. Pushing over 80g/hr on the bike was a great technique to fuel Sam throughout and sustain his high intensity going into the third discipline where fueling is often harder due to the mechanics of running
      • That said, Sam should consider taking on slightly more carbohydrate on the run (over 30g/hr). For example, this could be achieved by taking on a couple of gels. This would increase his overall average carb intake and meet the recommended 60-90g/hr for a race of this duration
      • Sam said “I started to fade a little in the last 5km of the race” so taking on more fuel during the run, especially in the earlier stages, could prevent this
      • Similarly to IM 70.3 Oceanside at the end of last year, Sam drank a small amount of coffee before the race and then ‘drip-fed’ himself caffeine throughout the bike leg with three caffeinated gels. This meant his in-race caffeine dose was ~4.09mg/kg, a good dose, within the recommended guidelines (3-6mg/kg) and timed well. Using caffeine effectively can be an ergogenic aid to performance by reducing an athlete’s perception of effort


      • Using his developed hydration and fueling plan, experienced triathlete Sam Appleton had a fantastic season opener to win IM 70.3 Geelong. Unsurprisingly, Sam was thrilled with the outcome, rating his race satisfaction as 8 out of 10, but mentioned that “there is still room for improvement”
      • Sam hit solid sodium, fluid and carb numbers, especially on the bike. For his upcoming races, he could consider having a gel just before the start of the race, as his standard pre-race breakfast is quite light
      • He could also aim to consume more carbohydrate on the run which may prevent the dip in energy levels he experienced in the final 5km of the race
      • All in all, a great first race of the 2022 season and we can’t wait to see what the year ahead holds for Sam

    Key info

    Sam Appleton

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 Geelong
    Geelong, Australia
    20th February, 2022
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi
    Bike Elevation
    616m / 2,021ft
    Run Elevation
    200m / 656ft
    Total Elevation
    816m / 2,677ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    12°C / 54°F
    Max Temp
    19°C / 66°F
    Avg Temp
    16°C / 61°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    I did want to finish the 1.2L/41oz I had on board my bike , but fell short of that
    Energy levels
    I did start to fade a little in the last 5km of the race, but overall I felt really good up until then
    Toilet stops
    GI comfort
    I didn't really have any stomach issues at all, but a mouthful of fizzy coke at the last aid station did give me a slight stitch for a couple of mins before the finish line
    No cramping

    Sam's Thoughts

     Everything went to plan more or less! I am happy with where I am this early in the season and this is a great stepping stone into the 2022 season

    Sam's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake1991,6301,650274988
    Per hour5444344874
    Bike and Run
    Total intake1991,6301,650274988
    Per hour6150250884
    Total intake1671,6301,0502501,552
    Per hour82802516123
    Total intake320600240
    Per hour26049320

    Data Confidence







    There is good confidence in the accuracy of the data reported. An athlete feels that the numbers closely reflect what they consumed despite a couple of estimations which may carry some degree of error. The majority of what was consumed is recorded to a high level of specificity (most volumes are known through the use of bottles brands quantities flavours). The numbers are very plausible and align with previous data recordings (if an athlete has collected data previously).

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