< Back to case studies

Danielle Lewis' scorecard

IM 70.3 Oregon

Sunday 3rd July, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 89g

    Carb per hour
  • 1,062mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 693ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 1,533mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 3.13mg/kg

    Caffeine per bodyweight
  • How Danielle hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 1500 (Tablet)
    500ml x PH 1000 (Tablet)
    1 x Bagel with peanut butter and banana
    1 x Coffee with creamer
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    *** Tip: For sea swims, put a bottle of water at T1 to rinse your mouth out
    500ml x Pre-made energy drink mix (160g carb) with 2 x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    500ml x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    1 x PF 30 Gel
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    1.1L x Plain water
    3 x PF 30 Gel
    600ml x Plain water
    60ml x Energy drink (36g carb)
    4 x Electrolyte capsule (50mg sodium)

    How Danielle's hydration and fueling went...

      • In a tough line up of experienced athletes, professional triathlete, Danielle Lewis, executed a stellar sub 4-hour performance to take the win at IM 70.3 Oregon
      • After experiencing fueling and hydration issues back at IRONMAN Texas in April, Danielle reached out to the team and booked a video call with Sean to talk about her experiences and receive some advice ahead of more races this season
      • Putting these practices into place, Danielle said “this was the first race where I felt I got what I needed” and rated her overall race satisfaction as 10 out of 10


      • Having experienced cramping issues at IM Texas, Danielle knew she needed to go into the race optimally hydrated. She did this by preloading the morning of the race with ~500ml/16oz of PH 1500 (Tablet) (on top of drinking an additional 500ml/16oz of PH 1000) to top up her sodium levels because of past issues with cramping in races
      • Going into the bike leg, Danielle believes that she's a salty sweater and therefore supplemented with PH 1500 throughout. She did this by making a highly concentrated sodium drink of two PH 1500 (Tablets) in 500ml/16oz, doubling the relative sodium concentration to ~3,000mg/L. Danielle did mention that this mix was “extremely strong” and picked up a total of ~1.1L/38oz of plain water to dilute it. But, she felt that she didn’t get enough plain water
      • In addition to her concentrated sodium bottle, she added a further two PH 1500 (Tablets) to her pre-made energy drink mix (500ml/16oz)
      • All in all, Danielle hit a high relative sodium concentration of ~1,905mg/L on the bike. This is likely to have been more than enough to replace her losses and she could look to add just one PH 1500 (Tablet) into her bottles rather than two
      • By ‘frontloading’ her race with a stronger relative sodium concentration on the bike, Danielle dial back her sodium intake on the run and the relative sodium concentration of what she consumed was much lower as a result (~349mg/L). She took four electrolyte capsules, containing 50mg of sodium each, while choosing to pick up fluids from the aid stations
      • Although we don’t know Danielle’s exact sweat rate and sodium losses, averaging an electrolyte concentration of ~1,533mg/L over the entire race is a sensible level considering the mild temperatures and past issues she has experienced, but she could work on achieving a more consistent sodium intake across the bike and run leg


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Before the early race start (6:15am), Danielle managed to fuel well with a carb-rich bagel topped with peanut butter and banana. Combined with her pre-race coffee and PF 30 Caffeine Gel, she ensured that her glycogen stores were full, and her energy levels high for the start
      • Heading out of the swim in a speedy 18 minutes 30 seconds, Danielle started to sip on her pre-made energy drink mix that contained a whopping 160g of carb in ~500ml/16oz! Danielle consumed all of this with a PF 30 Gel and a PF 30 Caffeine Gel to keep those energy levels high and ultimately hit a solid ~100g of carb per hour on the bike
      • Going into the run feeling strong, she carried a 500ml/16oz soft flask that contained ~200ml/6oz of plain water and three PF 30 Gels to conveniently get in fuel. Washed down with a few sips of sports drink from an aid station that unfortunately made her “feel a bit sick and uncomfortable”, this provided a few extra grams of carbs to hit ~75g per hour
      • Despite this mishap, Danielle said that other than that “my stomach felt amazing” and rated this an 8 out of 10
      • Over the whole race, Danielle averaged ~89g of carb per hour which helped maintain her high intensity and only experienced a small energy dip during the last two miles where she thought she “needed a little extra fuel”
      • We have seen that Danielle can tolerate caffeine well and to mitigate this dip in energy she could look to take a PF 30 Caffeine Gel during the run. Danielle took an overall caffeine dosage of ~3.1 milligrams per kilogram of bodyweight (mg/kg). For events lasting three to five hours the recommended caffeine dosage is ~3-6mg/kg (1.4-2.7mg per lb) and therefore there is certainly leeway for her to increase this


      • By following the advice of the PF&H Team, Danielle was able to put together a solid plan to secure the gold at IM 70.3 Oregon
      • Whilst taking on board a great amount of carb which can facilitate enhanced performance, Danielle could look to slightly dial down her sodium intake on the bike
      • This was the first race that Danielle “felt I got what I needed on board” and she should be very proud of how well her strategy is coming along. As she continues to refine her strategy, we look forward to seeing how much more she can achieve!

    Key info

    Danielle Lewis



    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 Oregon
    Oregon, USA
    3rd July, 2022
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.0km / 55.9mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi
    Bike Elevation
    350m / 1,148ft
    Run Elevation
    103m / 338ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    13°C / 55°F
    Max Temp
    19°C / 66°F
    Avg Temp
    15°C / 59°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    I don't think I took on enough water on the bike
    Energy levels
    In the last 2 miles on the run I felt like I need a little extra fuel
    Toilet stops
    GI comfort
    My stomach felt amazing and I didn't feel nauseous
    No cramping

    Danielle's Thoughts

     This was the first race where I felt I got what I needed

    Danielle's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake3554,2312,7602001,533
    Per hour891,06269350
    Bike and Run
    Total intake3254,2312,7601001,533
    Per hour911,18177028
    Total intake2274,0002,1001001,905
    Per hour1001,75292044
    Total intake982316600349
    Per hour751775080

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

    Danielle's recent case studies

    see all

    Related case studies

    Nail your next event with a FREE Fuel & Hydration Plan
    Get started