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Emma Pallant-Browne's scorecard

IM 70.3 Boulder

Saturday 7th August, 2021

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 91g

    Carb per hour
  • 499mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 540ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 925mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 353mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Emma hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 500 (Drink Mix)
    1L x PH 1000 (Drink Mix)
    1 x Black coffee
    4 x Mini chocolate chip bagels
    1 x Energy chew packet (48g carb, 75mg caffeine)
    *** Try to avoid drinking too much at this point in the race!
    1.5L x PH 1000 (Drink Mix)
    300ml x Plain water
    1.5 x Energy drink mix (60g carb)
    4 x Energy shot with caffeine (48g carb, 75mg caffeine)
    1 x PF 30 Gel
    350ml x Plain water

    How Emma's hydration and fueling went...

      • After a run of great races, including IM 70.3 Florida and PTO Williamsburg, Emma had another hugely successful performance at IRONMAN 70.3 Boulder, winning the event in a time of 3 hours and 59 minutes


      • Emma’s average sodium intake was ~497mg/hr and the relative sodium concentration of her drinks was ~1,104mg/L
      • Emma used PH 1000 and got some additional sodium in from the energy products she was consuming. She only took in sodium on the bike, not the run, but this seemed to be ok as being proactive on the bike saw her through the run without issue. Again, should conditions get more challenging, then Emma may need to think more about her sodium intake on the run
      • Whilst Emma’s sweat sodium concentration is low-to-moderate (~716mg/L), she has a very high sweat rate, which means her net sodium losses can add up and require her to be relatively ‘on it’ with her hydration
      • It was good to see her using some PH in her fluids prior to this race to make sure she started well hydrated (especially important when conditions are hotter). Learn more
      • Emma kept to her usual strategy of premixed bottles containing both a carb-rich drink mix and PH 1000 on the bike. She’s comfortable and confident with this strategy these days
      • She drank ~833ml (~28oz) per hour on the ride, which closely matches her previous fluid intakes in races of similar durations. As mentioned above, Emma sweats a lot (sometimes >2L/hr; >68oz/hr) and has learnt through experience that she requires a decent level of fluid replacement. A fluid volume of 800ml (27oz) would be on the upper end of tolerable for some athletes, but for Emma this is definitely optimal given her high sweat losses
      • During the run, much like sodium and carbs, her fluid intake dropped off but she stayed consistent in picking up cups of water from the aid stations and, given the run wasn’t “too long”, this saw her through to the line in a good state


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • We’d recommend that Emma consume 60-90g of carb per hour for a race of this duration. Impressively, Emma hit an average of 91g/hr across the race, which broke down as a whopping ~154g/hr on the bike and a much lower 23g/hr on the run. This tapering in consumption is not uncommon in long races and something we’ve seen Emma do before, albeit in a more extreme fashion in Boulder!
      • It should be acknowledged that 154g/hr is a very high carbohydrate intake. But there’s nothing wrong with this level of consumption per se, as long as it was tolerated well by Emma with no gastrointestinal discomfort, which was what she reported. Learn more
      • In future longer or hotter and more humid races, dialling back this intake to closer to ~90-100g/hr may be preferable to avoid any unwanted side-effects
      • In contrast, her carb intake on the run was low (23g/h), but this isn’t surprising given how much she consumed on the bike. This also isn’t totally unusual for Emma, who hit an average of 15g/h during the run at Williamsburg, but should still be considered an area for improvement. In Florida, Emma hit ~56g/h on the run which is much closer to the recommended intake for optimal performance (~60-90g/hr), so it’s about building some consistency really


      • Emma had another excellent race and executed her matured hydration and fueling plan well. There were drastic differences between what she took during the bike versus the run but, ultimately, she did such a good job on the bike with her carb, fluid and sodium intakes and this allowed her to get away with taking less in on the run

    Key info

    Emma Pallant-Browne

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 Boulder
    Boulder, USA
    7th August, 2021
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi
    Bike Elevation
    628m / 2,060ft
    Run Elevation
    99m / 325ft
    Total Elevation
    727m / 2,385ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    16°C / 61°F
    Max Temp
    24°C / 75°F
    Avg Temp
    22°C / 72°F

    Athlete feedback

    Hydration rating

    Emma's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake3631,9882,150353925
    Per hour9149954088
    Bike and Run
    Total intake3631,9882,150353925
    Per hour105573620102
    Total intake3331,9881,8003531,104
    Per hour153911824161
    Total intake30035000
    Per hour2302730

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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