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India Lee's scorecard

PTO Canadian Open

Saturday 23rd July, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 85g

    Carb per hour
  • 168mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 440ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 382mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 0mg/kg

    Caffeine per bodyweight
  • How India hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 1500 (Tablet)
    2 x Gluten free bread rolls with jam
    1 x Mug of black coffee
    0.5 x PF 90 Energy Gel
    *** Tip: For sea swims, put a bottle of water at T1 to rinse your mouth out
    250ml x PH 1500 (Tablets)
    500ml x Plain water
    8 x Energy gel (23g carb)
    100ml x PH 1000 (Tablets)
    1 x PF 90 Energy Gel
    800ml x Plain water

    How India's hydration and fueling went...

      • The inaugural PTO Canadian Open saw a stacked female field toe the line in Edmonton. With prize money up for grabs for the Top 20, the stakes were high and the racing was fierce
      • Precision Fuel & Hydration Ambassador, India Lee, finished the 100km course in 17th, clocking an overall time of 3 hours and 45 minutes
      • When it comes to her race nutrition strategy, India has been focussing on increasing her carbohydrate intake, having under-fueled some of her previous performances
      • In this race, India consumed her greatest in-race carbohydrate intake, whilst maintaining good gastrointestinal comfort, something which bodes very well for the future and is a testament to the gut training she has been doing in her key training sessions


      • India started her race day by drinking 500ml/16oz of PH 1500 (Tablet) ensuring that she was well-hydrated on the start line (learn more about preloading)
      • In India’s previous race at the IM 70.3 European Championships, she drank very little (just 120ml/4oz per hour) and managing her fluid and sodium needs better during her upcoming races was a recommendation, particularly in warmer race conditions - which Edmonton delivered as temperatures reached ~26℃/79°F
      • Having had a solid swim, India started the 80km bike course in 11th place with two pre-prepared bottles. One bottle contained a concentrated gel mix, whilst the other was filled with PH 1500 (Tablet). In total, she thinks that she drank ~250ml/8oz of the strong electrolyte drink and ~500ml/16oz of plain water which she picked up from on-course. This meant her average fluid consumption was just ~327ml/11oz per hour on the bike, a low fluid intake for the hot conditions
      • On the four-lap run, as the temperature continued to creep up, and India’s sweat rate with it, we saw her drink a greater volume. She estimated that she drank a total of ~800ml/27oz of water from the eight aid stations (~100ml/3oz per cup) as well as ~100ml/3oz of PH 1000 (Tablet) which was also available on-course. Together, this totalled ~900ml/30oz, an average of ~750ml/25oz per hour
      • Typically, India has reported “not being a big sweater” but in this race felt that her sweat rate was high by her standards. It’s important that an increased sweat rate is matched by an uptick in fluid consumption, and whilst on average India did drink more per hour in this race than we’ve seen her consume before, for the hot and humid conditions, it was most likely not enough
      • This was reflected in how India felt during the race, commenting afterwards that she felt “a bit of cramp towards the end of the bike” and slightly “woozy” at the tail end of the run. She thinks she did “just enough” to get through the 100km but knows that she could have done better, ultimately rating the appropriateness of her hydration strategy just a 3 out of 10
      • Some of the fluids India drank did contain a high concentration of sodium but unfortunately she wasn’t drinking enough of them to have too much impact on her sodium replacement. Whilst India isn’t a salty sweater, losing just 635mg of sodium per litre of sweat, in a long, hot race, sodium losses can accumulate when athletes are pushing themselves to the limit
      • Going forwards in long races, India should target ‘optimizing’ her sodium and fluid intake, as opposed to just trying to scrape by


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Given that the race didn’t begin until 10.45am, India could have eaten more before she started. She chose to eat two gluten-free bread rolls with jam. Whilst these are foods high in carbohydrates, they may not have provided enough total carbohydrate to ensure that she was starting optimally fuelled (learn more about pre-fuelling)
      • That being said, on top of her breakfast, India also consumed half of a PF 90 Energy Gel in the 30 minutes before the start which will have provided her with an additional ~45g of carbohydrate and been sufficient to spike her blood glucose levels, increasing carbohydrate availability in the early stages of the race, and potentially sparing glycogen stores for later
      • During the race, India took eight energy gels (23g carb per gel) to fuel her bike leg. India chooses to ride with these in a single concentrated bottle, a strategy which we see many elite athletes execute to great success. If using this method, it is important that an athlete can keep track of how much gel they are consuming per hour, so that they do not over- or under-consume carb unassumingly
      • By consuming all of the gels, India took on board a total of ~185g of carbohydrate during the bike, averaging ~92g of carb per hour - her highest rate of carbohydrate consumption in a race so far!
      • India kept this up on the run by carrying with her one PF 90 Gel, which over the 1 hour and 12 minute run, meant that she consumed ~75g/h. India had executed this same run strategy at the European Champs a few weeks prior to great success and opted to stick to what is becoming a well-refined race fueling strategy
      • India rated her gut comfort a 10 out of 10 for the majority of the race, with the exception of suffering a stitch for the first lap of the run which caused her some discomfort
      • Despite India’s increased carbohydrate intake, she rated her energy levels a modest 7 out of 10 which could have been related to a number of factors not least the dehydration she incurred, the challenging elevation on the bike course and the hot and humid weather conditions
      • To aid perceived energy levels in future races, India may consider using some caffeine within her racing. She did caffeinate before the race with a mug of black coffee, but topping this up with a dose mid-race could provide an additional ergogenic boost


      • Overall, India felt her race was “wasn’t awful, but it would have been nice to do better” and rated her satisfaction with her performance a 6 (out of 10)
      • She marginally improved her sodium and fluid consumption in this race off the back of the European Champs, but could still benefit from further dialing this in and remembering to be mindful of her hydration needs in-race
      • What was very positive from this race was India’s increase in carbohydrate consumption, and the minimal impact this had upon her gut comfort

    Key info

    India Lee

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    PTO Canadian Open
    Edmonton, Canada
    23rd July, 2022
    Swim Distance
    2.0km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    80.0km / 49.7mi
    Run Distance
    18.0km / 11.2mi
    Total Distance
    100.0km / 62.1mi
    Bike Elevation
    760m / 2,493ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    Hot and Humid
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    20°C / 68°F
    Max Temp
    26°C / 79°F
    Avg Temp
    24°C / 75°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    I know I didn't get enough fluid and could have done better. Towards the end I was feeling a bit lightheaded
    Energy levels
    GI comfort
    I had a stitch for the first lap of the run
    Twinges but not full-on cramps

    India's Thoughts

     It wasn't an awful race but I would have liked to have done better

    India's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake3206311,6500382
    Per hour851684400
    Bike and Run
    Total intake2756311,6500382
    Per hour861965130
    Total intake1855317500708
    Per hour922633720
    Total intake901009000111
    Per hour75837500

    Data Confidence







    There is good confidence in the accuracy of the data reported. An athlete feels that the numbers closely reflect what they consumed despite a couple of estimations which may carry some degree of error. The majority of what was consumed is recorded to a high level of specificity (most volumes are known through the use of bottles, brands, quantities, flavours). The numbers are very plausible and align with previous data recordings (if an athlete has collected data previously).

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