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India Lee's scorecard

IM 70.3 European Championships

Sunday 26th June, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 67g

    Carb per hour
  • 46mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 120ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 382mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 0mg

    Total caffeine
  • How India hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 1500 (Tablet)
    1 x Rice with cinnamon, salt and honey
    1 x Black coffee
    300ml x Coca Cola
    1 x PF 30 Gel
    *** Try to avoid drinking too much at this point in the race!
    300ml x Plain water
    7 x Energy gel (23g carb)
    1 x PF 90 Gel
    200ml x Plain water

    How India's hydration and fueling went...

      • Professional triathlete and PF&H Ambassador, India Lee, had a brilliant performance at the IM 70.3 European Championships, finishing third place in a time of 4 hours and 10 minutes
      • She exited the swim as part of the lead group and held position on the bike, eventually topping off her day with a strong run to complete the podium behind Emma Pallant-Browne and Ashleigh Gentle
      • Whilst India struggled to manage her hydration needs, she did a great job of dialing up her carbohydrate intake in this race compared to IM 70.3 Nice last year, and this was reflected in her high energy level rating (9 out of 10)


      • The area where India has the most room for improvement is hydration as she only drank ~500ml/16oz during the entirety of the four hour race. Reflecting on the race, India knew this, commenting “I didn’t take enough fluid on during the race, but I was well hydrated before so that meant I got away with it”
      • Aware that the race was to be warmer (average temperature ~25℃/77°F), India preloaded by drinking 500ml/16oz of PH 1500 alongside her breakfast which ensured she started with acutely greater sodium and fluid levels on board
      • During the race, India didn’t prepare any fluids for the bike, other than the small amount of water (~100ml/3oz) that was mixed into her concentrated bottle of gels. Given the warm conditions, this was perhaps an oversight from India who commented “my hydration was poor on the bike”, rating it just 4 (out of 10)
      • Towards the end of the bike, India grabbed a bottle of water from an aid station and drank ~200ml/6oz, making her total fluid consumption for the bike ~300ml/9oz (~129ml/4oz per hour)
      • Out on the run course, India did pick up water at every aid station but estimated that it was, again, only ~200ml/6oz in total
      • On top of the limited fluids India drank, she didn’t consume much sodium either, averaging a relative sodium concentration of ~382mg/L - a concentration higher than expected but only as a result of how little fluid she drank, skewing the perception of her sodium intake (just ~46mg/h)
      • Despite underdoing her hydration during the race, India’s performance didn’t appear to suffer on this occasion. It’s important to mention that India has had a Sweat Test and loses 635mg/L, making her a ‘low salty sweater’. If coupled with a low-to-moderate sweat rate then India’s net sodium and fluid losses in a race of this duration are unlikely to be substantial and, as she mentioned, her efforts to pre-hydrate will have helped minimise the adverse effects of her suboptimal hydration
      • That all said, should India race in hotter or more humid conditions, or step up in distance (which would elicit greater fluid/sodium losses) then she should plan for better fluid and sodium availability and consumption


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Harry preloaded the night before and the morning of the race with ~500ml/16oz of PH 1500 to ensure his sodium levels were high, and his body’s ability to retain fluid was optimal before the race began
      • During the bike Harry took a 1L/32oz bottle with two PH 1500 (Tablets), and two 500ml/16oz bottles each with gels topped up with water. This gave him a total fluid intake of ~1.65L/56oz on the bike with a relative sodium concentration of ~909mg/L. Given Harry’s sweat sodium concentration of 929mg/L, as measured by our Sweat Test, and the mild temperatures (average ~14℃/57℉), this intake will have adequately replaced his losses
      • On the run, Harry picked up two cups at each aid station, one of which he poured over his head to keep cool, and he drank the other. This gave him a total fluid intake of ~240ml/8oz during the run at a rate of ~197ml/h (7oz/h)
      • Harry didn’t take any sodium during the run but felt his preloading strategy and solid sodium intake on the bike would put him in good stead to run well and not suffer consequently. He also mentioned that if the temperatures were higher, he’d sensibly have taken a couple of Electrolyte Capsules with him to top off his sodium levels
      • Harry rated his hydration strategy 9/10, saying he felt well hydrated all day and that his strategy was appropriate for the weather conditions


      • India was happy with her race at the 70.3 European Championships, taking home a bronze medal, and commenting that she was “really pleased to put out a performance that I’m proud of”
      • Regarding her fueling and hydration strategy, the biggest improvement has been the increase in India’s consumption of carbohydrate; increasing her average intake from ~44g/h at Nice last year to ~67g/h in this race. A substantial increase which would pay dividends in her performance - well done India!
      • Going forwards, India will be aiming to implement a similar improvement in her hydration strategy, particularly in hotter conditions

    Key info

    India Lee

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 European Championships
    Elsinore, Denmark
    26th June, 2022
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi
    Bike Elevation
    600m / 1,969ft
    Run Elevation
    100m / 328ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    24°C / 75°F
    Max Temp
    26°C / 79°F
    Avg Temp
    25°C / 77°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    I know I didn't take enough fluid on during the race, but because I was well-hydrated before I think I got away with it
    Energy levels
    Toilet stops
    Twice during the run
    GI comfort
    No cramping

    India's Thoughts

     Carb-wise I took on more than I have in a race before (due to lots of practice in training!)

    India's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake2811915000382
    Per hour67461200
    Bike and Run
    Total intake2511915000382
    Per hour69521370
    Total intake1611913000637
    Per hour69821290
    Total intake90020000
    Per hour6801520

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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