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Leon Chevalier's scorecard

IM 70.3 Les Sables D'Olonne

Sunday 2nd July, 2023

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 107g

    Carb per hour
  • 419mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 579ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 725mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 7.51mg/kg

    Caffeine per bodyweight
  • How Leon hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 1500
    300g x Banana Bread
    250ml x Black Tea
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    *** Review technique if drinking much at this point!
    1L x PH 1500 (Drink Mix)
    2 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    1 x PF 90 Gel
    750ml x Plain water
    2 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    2 x PF 30 Gel
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    500ml x Plain water
    1 x Energy gel (25g carb)
    1 x Energy gel with caffeine (25g carb, 100mg caffeine)
    30ml x Cola

    How Leon's hydration and fueling went...

      • Leon produced a fantastic performance at IRONMAN 70.3 Les Sables d’Olonne to take the win on home soil in France, where he laid down his best ever 70.3 bike performance and fastest run split to date
      • And that’s despite the fact that things didn’t go exactly to plan as Leon dropped one of his highly concentrated carbohydrate and sodium bottles at the beginning of the bike. He was able to lean on his past racing experience, including at IM Mallorca 2021 where a similar mishap occurred, to replace at least some of what he’d lost from his bottle by picking up products from aid stations on course
      • Leon showed impressive flexibility to adjust his plan and executed an impressive fueling strategy on the day…


      • As an athlete who has worked with the PF&H Sports Science team for a few years, Leon knows how to nail his pre-race and mid-race hydration strategy to start optimally hydrated and replace his losses effectively throughout
      • Typically, Leon’s 70.3 hydration involves drinking two 1L / 32oz bottles of PH 1500 which also contain one PF 90 Gel each on the bike, and supplementing this with additional water from aid stations
      • But, Leon dropped one of his 1L / 32oz bottles at the very start of the bike leg. He was able to pick up ~750ml / 24oz of plain water to make up for some of the fluid he had dropped, however he felt this wasn’t enough as he mentioned feeling thirsty towards the end of the bike. In an attempt to get back on top of his sweat losses, he picked up ~500ml / 16oz of water from aid stations on the run, the highest fluid volume than we’ve seen him drink on the run in a 70.3
      • Leon wasn’t able to replace the 1,000mg of sodium he had dropped, resulting in his overall relative sodium concentration (~725mg/L) being lower than we usually see as he bids to replace his salty sweat (Leon loses 1,392mg per litre / 32oz of sweat)
      • Leon drank his other concentrated bottle and pre-loaded, and in these mild conditions this hydration strategy was adequate for him as he reported no issues except for the feelings of thirst on the bike. If the race was hotter or any longer, Leon may have experienced greater issues as a result of dropping half of his hydration


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • As is evidenced in Leon’s case studies, his middle and long course fueling strategy is often made up of concentrated energy mixes throughout the bike. Although this wouldn’t be the recommendation for everyone, more pro triathletes are using this technique to save themselves the valuable time and effort associated with opening other products
      • To be able to use these mixes successfully, athletes undergo vast amounts of gut training to become accustomed to the specific concentrations before they use them on race day
      • The difference in his intake to previous 70.3 races was that dropping his bottle meant Leon had lost 120g of carbohydrate. On top of consuming one carb-rich bottle and two PF 30 Caffeine Gels to replace the fuel he dropped, he picked up two on-course energy gels containing 25g of carb each
      • Not making up the additional 70g of carb he had intended to consume, Leon mentioned ‘feeling low’ on the run so he picked up two additional energy gels (25g carb each) on top of his planned two PF 30 Gels, one PF 30 Caffeine Gel and a small amount of Coca Cola
      • Being able to pick up the additional carb helped Leon take on an average ~107g/h over the whole race, which is an impressive feat for most athletes. However, Leon’s bike intake is often closer to 120g/h, so he did feel that despite his strong bike and run performances, he felt like he “ran the last 5km on empty”
      • As part of his strategy, Leon consumed a total of ~503mg of caffeine, in the form of three caffeine gels and a small cup of Coca Cola. While this is at the top end of the general caffeine recommendations (3-6mg/kg), as an athlete with a high tolerance for caffeine this amount will have kept his blood caffeine levels high throughout the race to increase his perceived energy levels


      • Thinking on his feet, Leon was able to replace a solid amount of the fluid and fuel he dropped early on throughout both the bike and run, allowing him to execute one of his best 70.3 performances yet. As a result, he rated his race satisfaction a 9 (out of 10)

    Key info

    Leon Chevalier

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    Very High
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 Les Sables D'Olonne
    Vendée, France
    2nd July, 2023
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi
    Bike Elevation
    454m / 1,490ft
    Run Elevation
    61m / 200ft
    Total Elevation
    515m / 1,690ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    14°C / 57°F
    Max Temp
    22°C / 72°F
    Avg Temp
    18°C / 64°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    I dropped one of my bottles at the beginning of the bike, which explains why I was a little thirsty towards the end despite picking up what I could from the aid stations
    Energy levels
    Energy levels were good throughout the bike, but I ran the last 5km on empty
    GI comfort
    No cramping

    Leon's Thoughts

     This was my best 70.3 bike to date, and I backed it up with a fast run so training is going well!

    Leon's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake4031,5802,180503725
    Per hour107419579134
    Bike and Run
    Total intake3731,5802,180403725
    Per hour116491678125
    Total intake2301,5391,650200933
    Per hour11275180598
    Total intake1434153020377
    Per hour12335454174

    Data Confidence







    There is good confidence in the accuracy of the data reported. An athlete feels that the numbers closely reflect what they consumed despite a couple of estimations which may carry some degree of error. The majority of what was consumed is recorded to a high level of specificity (most volumes are known through the use of bottles brands quantities flavours). The numbers are very plausible and align with previous data recordings (if an athlete has collected data previously).

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