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Mario Fraioli's scorecard

Boston Marathon

Monday 17th April, 2023

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 82g

    Carb per hour
  • 390mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 608ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 641mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 0mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Mario hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 500 (tablet)
    500ml x PF 60 Energy Drink Mix
    1 x English Muffin with Almond Butter
    1.5 x Cups of Black Coffee
    1 x Banana
    1 x PF 30 Energy Chews
    1L x PF 60 Energy Drink Mix
    4 x PF 30 Energy Gel
    560ml x Plain water

    How Mario's hydration and fueling went...

      • Mario is a California based running coach, writer and host of the Morning Shakeout Podcast. He made his 6th appearance at the Boston Marathon in 2023 and his past experience of the race helped him recognise early on that the conditions meant that it wasn't going to be a sub-2:30 day, so he focused on his pacing
      • His efforts on the day resulted in him running a time of 2:34:16 and he felt that this was his most evenly paced performance at Boston yet (1:16:43 / 1:17:31), whilst feeling that his fueling strategy was "on point" as he consumed more carbohydrate and fluid than he'd ever previously achieved in a marathon


      • Mario consumed electrolytes in his drinks both the night before and morning of the race in the form of PH 500 tablets, which would have helped him avoid starting the race significantly dehydrated. In future, to ensure he starts optimally hydrated, we’d recommend an even stronger electrolyte drink such as the PH 1500
      • Mario started the race with a 500ml Soft flask containing PF 60 Drink Mix, which he drank by Mile 4. He picked another of these up around Mile 16, but again finished it quickly and felt like he could have benefited from a third serving
      • Alongside seven cups of water from aid stations, this fluid intake resulted in Mario averaging ~608ml (21oz) per hour, with a relative sodium concentration of ~641mg of sodium per litre (mg/32oz)
      • Mario did feel the need to pee from Mile 10 to Mile 14 before the feeling subsided. One way he could have reduced the likelihood of this feeling occurring is to increase the sodium concentration of his drinks so that it more closely matches his sweat sodium concentration - we know from his Sweat Test that Mario loses 962mg of sodium per litre of sweat (mg/32oz). Sodium plays a key role in helping the body retain fluid, so he could consider carrying Electrolyte Capsules in future races to help increase his sodium intake so that his intake more closely matches the amount of sodium he loses in his sweat


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Mario carb loaded leading into this event, whilst reducing the amount of fibre in his food the evening before and morning of the race to help avoid gastrointestinal issues on the day
      • He finished his pre-fueling 20 minutes before race start with a PF 30 Chew. This tactically timed final dose of 30g of carb will have caused his blood glucose to rise in time for increased demand at the muscles, resulting in his stored glucose (glycogen) being spared so he could utilise it later on
      • During the marathon, Mario took on ~60g of carbohydrate from PF 60 Drink Mix in his Soft flasks and another 120g via PF 30 Gels. This meant he averaged ~82g of carb per hour, providing him with an additional ~328 kcal of energy to use every hour.
      • For context, the most Mario has ever fueled previously was when he managed a total intake of 460 kcal (~115g of carb across the whole 26.2 miles) during the California International Marathon, in 2018
      • While 82g per hour is more carb than most marathon runners consume, it actually sits just below the Fuel & Hydration Planner’s recommendation of 90g/h for an event of this duration and relative intensity, based on the most recent scientific literature
      • Mario didn’t take any caffeine on board during his race, but he did have one-and-a-half cups of black coffee during the morning of the race which would have contributed to his enhanced focus and reduced perceived effort due to the ‘long half life’ of caffeine
      • Typically a black coffee contains ~100mg of caffeine, meaning he would have taken on board 150mg total. To optimise his caffeine intake in future races, he could have benefitted from an additional boost to get his total intake up within the general 3-6mg per kilo of bodyweight recommendations
      • An easy and effective change to his current fueling plan in order to achieve this, would be to swap two of his PF 30 Gels for PF 30 Caffeine Gels


      • Mario was delighted to finish his 6th Boston Marathon in a time of 2:34:16 and he reaped the benefits of practicing his fueling strategy in training, which meant he fueled his race day with more carb than ever before
      • Looking to future races, Mario may want to consider adding caffeine to his race-day plan, as well as using Electrolyte Capsules alongside the plain water he drank to increase the relative sodium concentration of his intake, which in turn may help reduce the urge to pee

    Key info

    Mario Fraioli

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time

    Event information

    Boston Marathon
    Boston, USA
    17th April, 2023
    Total Distance
    42.2km / 26.2mi
    Total Elevation
    271m / 889ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    Min Temp
    8°C / 46°F
    Max Temp
    12°C / 54°F
    Avg Temp
    9°C / 48°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    The bottles of PF60 drink mix were game-changers. I wish I coud have had another one
    Energy levels
    I felt tremendous through the hills and afterward, better than any other time at Boston
    Toilet stops
    I felt like I needed to use a porta potty between miles 10-14, but luckily that feeling passed
    GI comfort
    No cramping

    Mario's Thoughts

     I realised early on that going sub-2:30 wasn't on the cards, but I'm happy with how I managed my emotions, pacing, and nutrition.

    Mario's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake2101,0001,5600641
    Per hour823906080

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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