< Back to case studies

Justin Metzler's scorecard

IM 70.3 Waco

Sunday 16th October, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 108g

    Carb per hour
  • 1,076mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 576ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 1,867mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 726mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Justin hit those numbers

    750ml x One Packet PH 1500 (Drink Mix)
    1 x Bowl of Overnight Oats with Honey, Banana and Almond Butter
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    *** Try to avoid drinking too much at this point in the race!
    1L x PH 1500 (Drink Mix)
    3 x PH Electrolyte Capsule
    1.5L x PF Energy Drink Mix
    1 x PF 30 Gel
    3 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    60ml x PF Energy Drink Mix
    2 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    1 x Energy gel with caffeine (25g carb, 100mg caffeine)
    320ml x Energy drink (22g carb)
    320ml x Cola

    How Justin's hydration and fueling went...

      • Justin executed a rigorously refined fuel and hydration strategy to secure his fifth podium position of 2022 by finishing 2nd at IM 70.3 Waco
      • Weather conditions took a turn at the start of the bike with torrential rain making conditions on the bike leg treacherous, so Justin did well to stay upright and produce another solid performance


      • Justin has added preloading into his strategy throughout this season, and 70.3 Waco was no exception. Our only suggestion is that he should reduce the quantity of water the PH 1500 is mixed in from ~750ml (24oz) to ~500ml (16oz) to achieve the optimal relative sodium concentration for stimulating an increase in blood plasma volume
      • On the bike, Justin drank ~1.5L (48oz) of fluid containing three servings of PF Energy Drink Mix and two sachets of PH 1500, bringing his average fluid consumption to ~720ml (23oz) per hour
      • Along with three Electrolyte Capsules, this meant the relative sodium concentration of his intake was ~2,500 milligrams of sodium per litre (mg/32oz). This is a very high sodium concentration because he didn't pick up any water from the aid stations, which he put down to the reduced temperatures and persistent rain which meant he didn't feel as if he needed to drink too much
      • Given his sweat sodium concentration of 1,044mg/L (mg/32oz), this high concentration on the bike was probably too high, and he should look to dilute this down by either drinking more fluid or perhaps consider taking fewer Electrolyte Capsules
      • Justin’s hydration strategy was curtailed slightly as the fast running Trevor Foley hopped off the bike alongside him and set off onto the run at warp speed. Because of this, Justin decided to take just two gulps of his Soft Flask filled with PF Energy Drink Mix and set off in hot pursuit
      • His only other fluid intake came from some on course energy drink and some Coca Cola. This meant that his average intake across the whole race was ~576ml (17oz) per hour, with a relative sodium concentration of ~1,876mg/L (mg/32oz)
      • This strategy at this particular race worked well for Justin, and consuming 51% of his average fluid intake from his race at IM 70.3 Eagleman earlier in the year shows how he’s still optimising his plan and is able to perform incredibly well as a result


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Justin optimised his pre-race energy stores by topping up his liver and muscle glycogen with his usual bowl of overnight oats with some protein powder, banana and almond butter
      • Then in the final 15 minutes before the swim start, he took a PF 30 Caffeine Gel to give his blood glucose a final boost and potentially spare his stored energy for later in the race. Justin is also a frequent caffeine user and the ergogenic benefits of it will have helped reduce his perception of effort once the caffeine began to be metabolised within ~45 minutes of ingestion
      • On the bike, Justin drank two 750ml (24oz) bottles with 1.5 servings of PF Energy Drink Mix and one PH 1500 (Drink Mix) sachet in each. This, coupled with the three PF 30 Caffeine Gels and one PF 30 Energy Gel brought his total carb intake to ~240g, averaging ~115g per hour for the bike discipline
      • Waiting for him in T2 was a 500ml (16oz) Soft Flask with PF Energy Drink Mix in, but Justin made the executive decision to take a couple of mouthfuls and discard it as he set off onto the run
      • This meant his carb intake came primarily from two more PF 30 Caffeine Gels, an on-course caffeine gel (25g carb, 100mg caffeine), and four cups of both on the course energy drink and Coca Cola. His average carb intake on the run was ~115g/h, which in addition to his bike intake and with his swim time included, brought his race average to ~108g/h. Justin's GI comfort rating of 10 (out of 10) is a testament to his extensive gut training
      • Justin enjoys the physical and mental benefits of caffeine, and by consuming ~726mg throughout the race he will likely have reaped the performance boosts associated with it. This intake is slightly higher than his caffeine consumption during 70.3 Oregon and 70.3 Eagleman earlier this year, but can be attributed to the additional 100mg that he picked up on the run course in an attempt to settle his perceived fluctuations in energy levels he’d been experiencing for most of the race


      • Justin walked away from this race with a whole host of positives, namely his first long-course race without experiencing the cramp-like sensations in his calves or quads. Justin has been working hard on his hydration strategy to try to get on top of these issues in case the cramps are caused by an electrolyte imbalance, whilst he’s also been implementing a structured strength and conditioning program over the last ~12 weeks which has certainly played a key role in reducing these cramping sensations. This blog helps explain potential causes of cramp and how to alleviate them
      • It’s plausible that a heavy training volume and end of season fatigue impacted Justin’s energy levels and perception of lethargy beforehand, and so he’s made a concerted effort to maximise his recovery and prepare himself for the final couple of races this season

    Key info

    Justin Metzler

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 Waco
    Waco, USA
    16th October, 2022
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    Hot and Humid
    Min Temp
    20°C / 68°F
    Max Temp
    26°C / 79°F
    Avg Temp
    24°C / 75°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Energy levels
    My energy levels were fluctuating quite a lot during the bike and run
    Toilet stops
    Felt like I needed to, but the race intensity was so high that I couldn't and the feeling eventually passed
    GI comfort
    No cramping

    Justin's Thoughts

     I'm fortunate enough to be entering races with the goal of being on the top step, and so second places are a little disappointing, but fuel to the fire nonetheless.

    Justin's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake4124,1072,2007261,867
    Per hour1081,076576190
    Bike and Run
    Total intake3824,1072,2006261,867
    Per hour1151,238663189
    Total intake2403,7501,5003002,500
    Per hour1151,800720144
    Total intake142357700326510
    Per hour115290568264

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

    Justin's recent case studies

    see all

    Related case studies

    Nail your next event with a FREE Fuel & Hydration Plan
    Get started