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Kyle Smith's scorecard

PTO European Open

Saturday 6th May, 2023

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 103g

    Carb per hour
  • 152mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 479ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 316mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 200mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Kyle hit those numbers

    750ml x Double PF Carb & Electrolyte Drink Mix serving
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    2 x Handfuls of Plain Rice
    500ml x Water
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    *** Review technique if drinking much at this point!
    1 x Fuel Bottle (6 x PF 30 Gels + 200ml x Water)
    500ml x PF Carb & Electrolyte Drink Mix
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    400ml x Plain water
    3/4 x PF 90 Gel
    480ml x Plain water

    How Kyle's hydration and fueling went...

      • Kyle had a tough day out at the inaugural PTO European Open in Ibiza where he emerged in the lead pack from the swim, led the majority of the bike and then experienced a fade on the run, resulting in a 9th place finish
      • After his strong swim, difficulties with aid station placement meant Kyle was unable to pick up enough water while cycling, meaning the effects of dehydration hit him hard during the following discipline
      • Despite this, Kyle was able to nail his carb intake across the race which is a positive to take forwards to his next events


      • Having ensured he started the race with no signs of dehydration, by using strong electrolytes both the day before and morning of the race, Kyle was keen to keep on top of his sweat losses in the Spanish sun
      • On the bike, he started this well with a full (500ml / 16oz) bottle of PF 60 Energy Drink Mix and ~400ml (14oz) of water to start him off
      • It was only when Kyle was ascending the largest hill of the lapped course and couldn’t spot the expected aid station that he realised it was placed on the fast descent further down the road, which made it far more difficult to collect anything while maintaining speed
      • The difficulties of collecting additional water while travelling over 50km/h (30m/h), meant that Kyle missed two bottles (1.5L / 48oz) of water
      • Typically, athletes aim to minimise body weight loss via sweat to less than 2% in order to avoid performance decrease due to dehydration. By missing his planned bottles, Kyle went onto the run course having only averaged 600ml (18oz) per hour, while likely losing over 1.25L/h (40oz/h) through sweat at that intensity in those conditions, based on his previous sweat rate testing
      • Assuming Kyle started optimally hydrated, the net weight loss due to sweat was likely exceeding 2% for someone of Kyle’s bodyweight between five and ten kilometres into the run. This coincided with the point at which his run speed deteriorated dramatically and his perception of effort exponentially increased
      • Kyle, reported disappointment in his hydration strategy for this race, especially given how fit he felt in the build up and during the first half
      • In future, Kyle will focus on nailing his fluid intake during hot races, especially when the intensity, and therefore his sweat rate, is high. One possible change to make is to start with slightly more fluid on the bike, in case there are any changes to the advertised aid station positions at future races


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Kyle, who is based in Andorra, didn’t have too far to travel to this race on the Spanish island of Ibiza, and was happy to have carb-rich food that he was used to the night before and the morning of the European Open
      • He spared his stored carbohydrate for use later on in the race by having a final PF 30 Caffeine Gel with just 15 minutes left until the start. With 100mg of caffeine making it’s way into his bloodstream, he felt the effects of reduced perceived exertion peaking around 20 minutes into the bike
      • Kyle then did a really good job of executing his fueling strategy, through the use of PF 60 Energy Drink mix, PF 90 Gels and PF 30 Gels
      • In all, he averaged ~103g of carb per hour which would have provided him with high continual available energy for his working muscles
      • A key observation from Kyle’s race was the significant drop off in carb intake from bike to run (~131g/h to ~67g/h). While we would often recommend that athletes minimise the difference between the two, we do typically see a drop off due to it generally being more uncomfortable processing lots of things in the gut while running
      • Because Kyle fueled the bike leg so aggressively, he would have ‘front loaded’ the run to some degree. If he were to target races which were much longer in duration in future this is something that he should consider levelling out
      • Happily, despite having a self-proclaimed ‘ropey’ stomach during the week leading into the race, Kyle was able to rate his gastrointestinal comfort a perfect 10 (out of 10). This is testament to the gut training he’s undergone over the last couple of years where his high carb intake now feels quite easy to achieve in races
      • Kyle’s caffeine intake was extremely well timed during this race, with one PF 30 Caffeine Gel at the start and one before hopping off the bike for his one hour run. That said, at ~200mg total intake, he would be sitting just below the general recommendations of 3-6mg per kilo recommendation for enhanced performance, and so could look to incorporate another caffeine gel or two throughout the race


      • Kyle was naturally frustrated that he had led this race for such a long time and then succumbed to the performance limiting effects of dehydration
      • But, he found a positive out of the race in that he now knows he has the fitness and ability to be at the pointy end of these races, and simply requires the execution to fall into place on the day
      • Another positive from this event for Kyle is the effective nailing of his fueling, which he can definitely take forwards, alongside a slightly optimised hydration strategy into his next race

    Key info

    Kyle Smith

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    Very Low
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    PTO European Open
    Ibiza, Spain
    6th May, 2023
    Swim Distance
    2.0km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    80.0km / 49.7mi
    Run Distance
    18.0km / 11.2mi
    Total Distance
    100.0km / 62.1mi

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    17°C / 63°F
    Max Temp
    23°C / 73°F
    Avg Temp
    20°C / 68°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Hydration was great until it wasn't. I missed two bottles on the bike which would've made a big difference to my fluid intake
    Energy levels
    I had a bit of a mental battle at the end of the tough bike, and then the first 5-10km of the run felt great. I just ran out of gas...
    GI comfort

    Kyle's Thoughts

     I'm satisfied that I know I've got a big result in the tank fitness wise, it's just frustrating that the execution wasn't there on the day

    Kyle's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake3405001,580200316
    Per hour10315247961
    Bike and Run
    Total intake3105001,580100316
    Per hour10817354835
    Total intake2405001,100100455
    Per hour13127360055
    Total intake70048000
    Per hour6704570

    Data Confidence







    There is some confidence in the quantities and brands of products consumed but the data may lack specifics (e.g. volumes specific flavours). A high number of estimations have been made and the room for error is moderate-high. There may also be the possibility that some intake has been grossly over- or under-estimated.

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