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Sarah Crowley's scorecard

IRONMAN Western Australia

Sunday 4th December, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 70g

    Carb per hour
  • 346mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 621ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 557mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 419mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Sarah hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 1500
    0.5 x Cup of Oats with Nutella
    300ml x Protein Milkshake
    1 x Banana
    *** Tip: For sea swims, put a bottle of water at T1 to rinse your mouth out
    3 x PF 30 Gel
    700ml x Plain water
    200ml x Additional fluid in mixed drinks
    2 x Energy gel with caffeine (25g carb, 100mg caffeine)
    2.2L x Energy drink (22g carb)
    1 x Small bag of Haribo
    300ml x Energy drink (48g carb)
    2 x PF 30 Gel
    900ml x Plain water
    2 x Energy gel with caffeine (25g carb, 100mg caffeine)
    2 x Energy gel (22g carb)
    905ml x Energy drink (22g carb)
    243ml x Cola
    1 x Banana

    How Sarah's hydration and fueling went...

      • Sarah produced another stellar performance at IM Western Australia to remain unbeaten at IRONMANs in Australia for 2022
      • The consistent execution of her fuel and hydration plan no-doubt helped her command this race with the third fastest swim and run times, and the second fastest bike split to beat 2nd place by almost 5 minutes


      • As someone with a low sweat sodium concentration, coupled with a fairly low sweat rate, Sarah often drinks much less than some of her opposition, whilst continuing to perform extremely well
      • Preloading her sodium levels before the race helped Sarah start the race optimally hydrated, and then regularly topping up her fluid and electrolyte levels through meant she avoided any hydration related issues such as muscle cramps, headaches or nausea later in the race
      • With that being said, Sarah did feel like she was quite dehydrated when she crossed the finish line, partly due to the extremely windy conditions which made it difficult, and a little dangerous, to pick up additional fluids from the on-course aid stations
      • Sarah still managed to drink ~621ml (21oz) on average per hour across the entire race, which is very much in-line with what we’ve seen her drink at previous IM races
      • By averaging ~557 milligrams of sodium in every litre (32oz) of her drinks, Sarah will have replaced a good proportion of her electrolytes lost through sweating. We know Sarah has a low sweat sodium concentration from her Sweat Test
      • Once again, this is a very similar, if slightly higher, sodium concentration in her bottles to what we saw her consume without issue at IM Kona, IM Cairns, and IM Australia earlier in the 2022 season. With the high winds affecting her access to the aid stations in this event, Sarah was unable to pick up additional fluids, which would have diluted the sodium concentration
      • Sarah felt like she finished quite dehydrated as a result of her lower-than-planned fluid intake, but this clearly didn’t affect her performance too much. PF&H Founder Andy Blow has written a blog post about how dehydration affects individual athletes differently, and why it isn’t necessarily a bad thing, in moderation


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Sarah toed the start line with full glycogen stores as a result of her high-carb diet in the days beforehand, and finished this off with a bowl of oats with chocolate spread, a protein milkshake and a banana for her race-day breakfast
      • 15-20 minutes before the swim start, we’d usually recommend some simple carbohydrates like a PF 30 Caffeine Gel to stimulate a rise in blood glucose and potentially spare some of her stored energy for later in the race. This isn’t a strategy Sarah chose to implement this time around, but it could be beneficial in future
      • During the bike Sarah averaged ~74g of carbohydrate per hour, which came mostly from PF 30 Gels, and a whole host of on-course nutrition, including caffeinated gels and sports drinks
      • During the run, Sarah relied predominantly on gels, but also grabbed a banana to top up her carbs and change up the texture and taste. In total, she averaged ~70g of carbohydrate per hour across the entire race, which is similar, although slightly lower than her ~75g/h intake at IM Cairns, and ~79g/h at IM Australia which she also won
      • Sarah put this down to a few things, namely “taste fatigue” from sports nutrition, something which is not uncommon amongst elite athletes who are trying to take in large volumes of energy day-to-day across a 10-11 month season. Sarah backed this up by rating her GI comfort a 3 (out of 10), adding that she “really had to force my last on-course gel down”, but also felt she wasn’t being “pushed to my limits” by her opposition, so could afford a slightly lower fuel intake


      • In all, Sarah displayed an excellent ability to replicate a well-rehearsed nutrition strategy to support her journey towards yet another IRONMAN victory in 2022
      • Rating her overall satisfaction an 8 (out of 10), Sarah can take great confidence that even when racing within her limits, a sub-9 hour IM is still perfectly achievable
      • She summarised her season by saying “It takes a whole team for me to race like this, and I can’t thank my team enough, especially the guys at Precision Fuel & Hydration who make sure I’m completely dialled with nutrition no matter the conditions”

    Key info

    Sarah Crowley



    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Full distance
    IRONMAN Western Australia
    Busselton, Australia
    4th December, 2022
    Swim Distance
    3.8km / 2.4mi
    Bike Distance
    180.2km / 112.0mi
    Run Distance
    42.2km / 26.2mi
    Total Distance
    226.2km / 140.6mi

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    17°C / 63°F
    Max Temp
    23°C / 73°F
    Avg Temp
    21°C / 70°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Energy levels
    Felt a bit hungry at the end of the bike, probably could have had another gel
    Toilet stops
    I was really dehydrated when I finished
    GI comfort
    Some gel fatigue and had to force some down towards the end
    No cramping

    Sarah's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake6103,0365,448419557
    Per hour7034662148
    Bike and Run
    Total intake6103,0365,448419557
    Per hour7939270354
    Total intake3482,2053,400200649
    Per hour7447372943
    Total intake2628312,048219406
    Per hour8527066471

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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