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Tom Bishop's scorecard

IM 70.3 Swansea

Sunday 7th August, 2022

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 63g

    Carb per hour
  • 560mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 448ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 1,250mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 100mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Tom hit those numbers

    300ml x PF 30 Drink Mix
    2 x Cup of coffee
    1 x Rice pouch
    1 x Egg
    1 x Nutrigrain bar
    1 x Caffeine tablet (200mg)
    1 x PF 30 Gel
    *** Tip: For sea swims, put a bottle of water at T1 to rinse your mouth out
    1.5L x PF Carb & Electrolyte Drink Mix
    1 x PF 30 Caffeine Gel
    1 x PF 90 Gel
    300ml x Plain water

    How Tom's hydration and fueling went...

      • Professional British triathlete, Tom Bishop, is most renowned for racing shorter distances, often appearing on the International Triathlon Union (ITU) circuit. This year has seen him step up to middle distance and at IM 70.3 Swansea, despite it being just his second time competing at this distance, he impressively took third place in a time just marginally over four hours
      • Tom has been working with the PF&H Sports Science team to formulate a robust fuel and hydration strategy which supports his needs over these longer events
      • He didn’t have the smoothest of races in Wales, losing his gel bottle and suffering a flat on the bike, but he learnt a lot in regards to improving his race nutrition strategy in the future


      • Tom began race day by consuming two coffees and ~300ml/10oz of PF Carb & Electrolyte Drink Mix. He added three scoops of the drink mix to 500ml/16oz of water which increased the relative sodium concentration to ~1,500mg/L, an optimal concentration for preloading his hydration
      • That said, whilst the concentration of the drink was optimal, Tom could have drunk slightly more to set himself up for the tough effort ahead, something he mentioned afterwards
      • From a Camelbak, stored down the front of his trisuit, Tom drank ~1.5L/48oz of PF Carb & Electrolyte Drink Mix, mixed as three scoops (1.5 servings) per 500ml/16oz. He didn’t pick up any further fluids so on average consumed ~647ml/22oz per hour for the 2-hour 20-minute ride
      • The PF Carb & Electrolyte Drink Mix is a good option for middle distance racing as it provides an athlete not only with carbohydrate but also a high sodium content (500mg per serving). In total on the bike, Tom consumed ~2,250mg of sodium which, when the volume of fluid he drank alongside it is factored in, equates to a relative sodium concentration of ~1,500mg/L
      • We don’t yet know Tom’s sweat sodium concentration but given we know that the average sweat sodium concentration falls ~950mg/L, Tom’s degree of replacement on the bike was more than likely optimal, especially as temperatures weren’t too high (average of ~18℃/64℉) which would elicit a greater sweat rate and ultimately a high net sodium loss
      • Tom failed to manage his hydration as well on the run as he did on the bike, drinking minimal water (estimated ~300ml/10oz in total) and taking in no sodium
      • Unfortunately, Tom cramped in his adductor and hamstring ~15km into the run, which forced him to walk for ~200m until it eased off. The cause of cramp can be difficult to nail down but Tom’s minimal fluid and sodium consumption during the run could be a factor
      • It’s also plausible that having suffered a flat tyre on the bike that Tom had to work harder on the bike to counter this which induced greater muscle fatigue and possible muscular damage which may also have had an influence
      • In future races of this length and intensity, Tom should consider carrying 1-3 PH Electrolyte Capsules with him on the run and being mindful to drink a greater volume of water alongside these (~500ml/16oz per hour is a good target). Tom rated his hydration strategy in this race an 8 (out of 10) and commented “I could try to drink more running but it’s hard at that pace”
      • Tom should think about practising the mechanisms of drinking at race pace during some training sessions leading up to his next race


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • Tom’s pre-race intake was high in carbohydrate but low in fibre as recommended. At around 5:00am, approximately two hours before the start, he chose to eat a 250g rice pouch, an egg and one breakfast bar. Alongside this, he drank ~300ml/10oz of PF Carb & Electrolyte Drink Mix (mixed with 1.5 servings) which provided an additional ~27g of carb
      • Tom also caffeinated in the morning with two coffees plus one 200mg caffeine tablet. This meant Tom’s total pre-race caffeine dose was ~300-400mg (depending on the strength and brew of the coffee). This falls within the caffeine recommendations for optimal performance (3-6mg of caffeine per kilogram of body weight)
      • Within 15 minutes of the start, Tom also took one PF 30 Energy Gel to spike his blood glucose levels. Altogether, this consumption will have ensured that Tom was starting well-fueled, with his perceived and actual energy levels high
      • During the race, Tom had prepped a concentrated gel bottle on the bike alongside a bottle of PF 30 Drink Mix, mixed at a one and a half strength. Unfortunately, in a cruel twist, Tom’s gel bottle fell off his bike “almost immediately”, before he had chance to consume anything from it
      • This left Tom with just 1.5L/48oz of PF Carb & Electrolyte Drink Mixwhich he drank all of. As he’d added three scoops per 500ml/16oz, this meant he consumed a total of ~135g of carb on the bike, averaging ~58g per hour
      • This isn’t too bad considering the circumstances but ideally, for the intensity he was holding, Tom would be taking in between 75-90g/h on the bike as per the recommendations of the Fuel & Hydration Planner. Had he not lost his gels then we could be confident Tom would have been within this range with his fuel intake
      • In future, should something similar happen and Tom loses a fuel source, he should think about picking up substitutes from the on-course aid stations. It’s not always possible, and the risk of gut issues should be considered, but maintaining high energy availability is necessary when vying for those top positions
      • Tom managed to stick to his pre-determined fueling strategy on the run, taking one PF 90 Gel and one PF 30 Caffeine Gel, totalling ~120g carb and averaging ~97g/h - a very impressive intake on the run!
      • Tom didn’t mention having any gut discomfort on the run and overall rated his GI comfort 8 out of 10. The marking down was because “I got a bit bloated on the bike with the liquid consumed but I think that was just down to taking in air with the drink”
      • Losing his gels on the bike, and subsequently underfueling at this point, is likely to have had an effect on Tom’s energy levels during the remainder of the race. He rated his energy as 6 (out of 10) and mentioned fading on the run but wasn’t sure “if that was down to fueling or just getting tired and settling for third place”
      • Overall, with the swim excluded, Tom averaged ~72g/h on the bike and run which is a good intake considering he lost a big proportion of fuel on the bike


      • Tom executed a great performance at IM 70.3 Swansea and, despite having to navigate some challenges, took home the bronze medal
      • The fuel and hydration strategy that Tom had planned for the race was good. For future races, his focus should be on increasing fluid and sodium provision on the run, and better securing his gel bottle to his bike!
      • All in all, this was a brilliant early show of what Tom could achieve over this distance going forwards and we’re excited to continue helping him dial in his race nutrition strategy

    Key info

    Tom Bishop



    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 Swansea
    Swansea, Wales
    7th August, 2022
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    13°C / 55°F
    Max Temp
    20°C / 68°F
    Avg Temp
    18°C / 64°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    I probably need to take more on the run but it's hard at that pace
    Energy levels
    I did fade on the run in terms of pace but I don’t know if that was down to fuelling or just getting tired and settling for 3rd place
    Toilet stops
    GI comfort
    Severe cramps that caused me to stop before I could continue

    Tom's Thoughts

     I'm happy with the podium and that I didn’t blow up, just off the pace a bit. I would like to be able to sustain a higher intensity on the run and not get cramp

    Tom's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake2552,2501,8001001,250
    Per hour6356044825
    Bike and Run
    Total intake2552,2501,8001001,250
    Per hour7263450728
    Total intake1352,2501,50001,500
    Per hour589716470
    Total intake12003001000
    Per hour97024381

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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