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Emma Pallant-Browne's scorecard

IM 70.3 Andorra

Sunday 2nd July, 2023

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 57g

    Carb per hour
  • 208mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 496ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 420mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 0mg

    Total caffeine
  • How Emma hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 1500
    2 x Slices of White Bread with Jam and Egg
    1 x PF 30 Gel
    *** Review technique if drinking much at this point!
    500ml x PH 1000 (Tablets)
    4 x PF 30 Gel
    750ml x Energy Drink Mix (60g Carb)
    520ml x Energy drink (22g carb)
    540ml x Plain water
    720ml x Energy drink mix (34g carb)

    How Emma's hydration and fueling went...

      • In her first race back from a stomach virus, Emma took on the hilly course at IRONMAN 70.3 Andorra and put together another consistent performance
      • Emma was pleased to take 2nd place behind fellow PF&H product user Ash Gentle. The pair are recognised as the top runners in middle-distance racing, and their run splits were just two seconds apart!


      • Emma preloaded like she usually does with a bottle of PH 1500 the night before and morning of the race. This helped her initiate the performance enhancing effects of an increase in blood plasma volume (hypervolemia), and reap the thermal regulation benefits of this physiological process
      • During the race, as the bike course was very hilly (~1900m / 6,233ft elevation gain), Emma opted to use her road bike rather than her TT bike to make it easier to handle the steep climbs and descents. She also tried to limit the amount of fluid she was carrying at a given time, thus minimising the weight of her bike
      • To achieve this, she set out with a 750ml (24oz) bottle of water containing 60g of carbohydrate and a PH 1000 Tablet. Then her focus switched to collecting on-course sports drinks to top up her fluid and electrolyte intake
      • Temperatures were fairly warm (~21℃ / 70℉) but not excessively hot, and on the long climbs where there was little wind to provide any cooling effect, Emma knew that she could be sweating a lot. To compensate for this, she drank ~520ml (16oz) of on-course sports drink and frequently poured bottles of water over her head to keep herself cool
      • In all, Emma managed to drink ~401ml (13oz) per hour on the bike, with a relative sodium concentration of ~576 milligrams of sodium per litre (mg/32oz). Emma's sweat sodium concentration is 716mg/L (mg/32oz), so the amount of sodium in her drinks will have replaced a good proportion of her electrolyte losses from sweating
      • Heading onto the run, Emma felt like she’d done an “okay” job of hydrating on the bike, but was a little thirsty. Subsequently, her focus shifted to drinking a larger amount to ensure she didn’t suffer any effects of dehydration towards the end of the run
      • Sure enough, she increased her hourly intake of fluid to ~900ml (30oz) by relying solely on aid-station pick ups, being extra careful to get as much from each cup as possible
      • As the sodium concentration of the on-course sports drink was quite low, her relative sodium concentration did not follow a similar pattern, and fell to ~263mg/L (mg/32oz)
      • This meant across the five hours and six minutes of racinge, Emma’s average sodium concentration was ~420mg/L (mg/32oz). Going forward, we’d recommend Emma carries a couple of Electrolyte Capsules with her on the run to top up her sodium intake


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • A trend we’ve seen from analysing Emma’s intake at her previous races is her solid carb-loading strategy. Andorra 70.3 was no different, and she removed all fibre from her diet in the preceding 24-36 hours, and increased the proportion of simple carbohydrates including pasta, white bread and some rice - a textbook carb-load
      • Then, shortly before the race, she took a PF 30 Gel to stimulate a rise in blood glucose, and give her working muscles the access to the energy required once the race began
      • Emma began the hilly bike with the aforementioned 750ml (24oz) bottle containing 60g of carb, and also had four PF 30 Gels taped to the top tube of her bike
      • Then, similarly to her hydration strategy, the rest of Emma’s fueling plan was supplemented by collecting on-course bottles of sports drink. Compared to some of her previous races, where she had been suffering with an underlying stomach virus, and averaged as little as ~25g per hour on the bike, she managed to take a solid ~68g per hour in Andorra. This is even more impressive as the bike discipline took ~40 minutes longer than normal due to the extremely hilly profile
      • On the run is where Emma’s carb intake has typically dropped off in previous races, sometimes to nothing at all. Whilst it did still drop, she did a good job of maintaining ~35g per hour, by picking up more cups of the on-course sports drink
      • Emma gave herself the option of carrying a PF 30 Gel out of T2 and having it during the run. However, she mentioned feeling quite full at the end of the bike, so chose to leave the gel in transition. This “full” feeling could be prevented by undergoing some more ‘gut training’ which will help her feel less discomfort when taking larger amounts of fluid and carbohydrates, and increase her tolerance to the PF 30 Gel on the run


      • Emma’s return to discomfort-free racing was successful after several incidences of GI distress post-race, decreasing her willingness to take any “solid” fuel during the run. Hopefully, as her stomach virus continues to clear up, Emma’s tolerance and willingness to take more “non-liquid” carbohydrates will increase. As these fuel sources typically contain a higher concentration of carbohydrates, her overall average will also likely increase
      • As she approached the end of the race, Emma realised the win wasn’t possible, and so focused on keeping her heart rate under control and avoid overheating
      • In future, she’ll look to continue to bolster her fueling intake, which will be particularly important in races where she’s fighting for position right until the finish line

    Key info

    Emma Pallant-Browne

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 Andorra
    Andorra La Vella, Andorra
    2nd July, 2023
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi
    Bike Elevation
    1,900m / 6,234ft
    Run Elevation
    50m / 164ft
    Total Elevation
    1,950m / 6,398ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    18°C / 64°F
    Max Temp
    23°C / 73°F
    Avg Temp
    21°C / 70°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Energy levels
    Toilet stops
    GI comfort
    No cramping

    Emma's Thoughts

     I lost a bit of time on the technical descents, but I'm stoked with having no stomach issues and could race hard the whole time

    Emma's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake2931,0622,5300420
    Per hour572084960
    Bike and Run
    Total intake2631,0622,5300420
    Per hour582335540
    Total intake2147311,2700576
    Per hour682314010
    Total intake493311,2600263
    Per hour352379000

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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