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Emma Pallant-Browne's scorecard

IM 70.3 Oceanside

Saturday 30th October, 2021

Within recommended ranges

Just outside recommended ranges

Significantly outside recommended ranges

  • 77g

    Carb per hour
  • 281mg

    Sodium per hour
  • 693ml

    Fluid per hour
  • 406mg/L

    Relative sodium concentration
  • 3.56mg/kg

    Caffeine per bodyweight
  • How Emma hit those numbers

    500ml x PH 500 (Drink Mix)
    1L x PH 1500 (Drink Mix)
    2 x Bagels with jam
    1 x Energy bar (22g carb)
    1 x Energy gel with caffeine (22g carb, 20mg caffeine)
    *** Tip: For sea swims, put a bottle of water at T1 to rinse your mouth out
    500ml x PH 500 (Drink Mix)
    2 x Energy chew packet with caffeine (20g carb, 20mg caffeine)
    2 x Energy shot with caffeine (49g carb, 75mg caffeine)
    1.5L x Energy drink (36g carb)
    2 x PF 30 Gel
    960ml x Plain water

    How Emma's hydration and fueling went...

      • Emma ended the season with a strong performance at IM 70.3 Oceanside to finish in second place. She said that the race “was pretty spot on” and that she was “really happy with it”, rating her race satisfaction as 8 or 9 out of 10
      • Finishing the race 2 minutes behind the leader in a time of 4 hours and 16 minutes, Emma used a similar hydration and fueling strategy to what we have seen from her at previous races and said “I am pretty happy with how this one went fueling wise”


      • On average, Emma drank ~693m/24ozl of fluid per hour from a 500ml/16oz bottle of PH500, two 750ml/25oz bottles of energy drink and from picking up just under 1L/32oz of water on the run. From working with Emma previously we know she has a very high sweat rate so drinking over 800ml/hr (27oz/hr) on the bike as she did here is common practice for her to replace her high sweat losses
      • In the warm conditions hitting nearly 700ml/hr (25oz/hr) on average over the whole race will have replaced a good proportion of her losses and is higher than her fluid consumption at both Boulder and the Collins Cup. She was happy with her hydration strategy and rated it a 9 out of 10
      • Emma consumed ~281mg/hr sodium which alongside her fluid intake equates to a relative sodium concentration of ~406mg/L. Considering her high sweat rate and her moderate sweat sodium concentration (716mg/L), she could have been taking slightly more sodium on board to replace a greater proportion of her losses. At both 70.3 Florida and Boulder, Emma hit over 400mg/hr sodium, so looking to reach these sorts of numbers again - possibly with PH1000 or electrolyte capsules - could be good to reduce her accumulated sodium loss


    Quick Carb Calculator Recommendation


    carb 30 mins before


    carb per hour during
      • As we have seen Emma do before previous races, she ate a carb-rich breakfast on the morning of the race and had an energy gel 10 minutes before the swim. This will have topped up her fuel stores effectively prior to the race
      • Throughout the race Emma had some energy drink mix, energy chews and a couple of PF Energy Gels to meet her fueling needs. From these products, she consumed an average of ~77g carb per hour during the race. This is a solid intake and well within our recommended range (60-90g/hr)
      • Her carbohydrate intake broke down into a higher ~101g/hr on the bike and a lower ~46g/hr on the run. This tapering in consumption is common especially when athletes have fueled well on the bike. Emma was able to fuel excellently on the bike hitting over 100g/hr helping her perform on the bike and into the run. She mentioned that she had a bad elbow so couldn’t go into the aero position much on the bike, which gave her more time to eat and drink (as you can see from her numbers)
      • Her carb intake was higher than she achieved at IM 70.3 Florida and the Collins Cup but lower than the extremely high intake she reached at IM 70.3 Boulder. Positively, she experienced no GI issues during the race and she rated her energy levels as an 8 out of 10 throughout
      • In terms of caffeine, Emma didn’t have a coffee on the morning of the race which she does often choose to do, however she did consume caffeine during the race in the form of caffeinated energy chews. She had a total caffeine intake of ~210mg which equates to roughly ~3.56mg per kilogram of body weight. This is a moderate dose of caffeine which falls within the range that is recommended for endurance performance (3-6mg/kg of bodyweight)


      • Overall, Emma had a great performance in California at the end of a fantastic season of racing! Using a similar strategy to previous races, she hit solid numbers especially in terms of carbohydrates on the bike which she puts down to having more time to eat because of a bad elbow affecting her ability to get in the aero position
      • Emma could look to increase her sodium intake slightly to continue to replace a good proportion of her losses, considering her high sweat rate and moderate sweat sodium concentration. All in all, an excellent performance and we are looking forward to seeing Emma continue to perform consistently well again next season

    Key info

    Emma Pallant-Browne

    Sweat sodium concentration
    Sweat sodium classification
    * determined by a PH Advanced Sweat Test


    Overall Time
    Swim Time
    Bike Time
    Run Time

    Event information

    Middle distance
    IM 70.3 Oceanside
    California, USA
    30th October, 2021
    Swim Distance
    1.9km / 1.2mi
    Bike Distance
    90.1km / 56.0mi
    Run Distance
    21.1km / 13.1mi
    Total Distance
    113.1km / 70.3mi
    Bike Elevation
    829m / 2,720ft
    Run Elevation
    84m / 276ft
    Total Elevation
    913m / 2,995ft

    Race conditions

    Weather Conditions
    No Rain
    Min Temp
    16°C / 61°F
    Max Temp
    19°C / 66°F
    Avg Temp
    19°C / 66°F

    Athlete feedback

    Race Satisfaction
    Hydration rating
    Energy levels
    Toilet stops
    Once in the swim and once on the run
    GI comfort
    Very good
    No cramping

    Emma's Thoughts

     I am pretty happy with how this one went fuelling wise, I took it a bit easier on the bike because I had a bad elbow so couldnt go into aero much and so had way more time to eat and drink.

    Emma's full stats

     Carbohydrate (g)Sodium (mg)Fluid (ml)Caffeine (mg)Relative sodium concentration (mg/L)
    Total intake3281,2022,960210406
    Per hour7728169349
    Bike and Run
    Total intake3061,1422,960190386
    Per hour8230679451
    Total intake2461,1422,000190571
    Per hour10146982278
    Total intake60096000
    Per hour4607430

    Data Confidence







    There is an adequate level of accuracy in the data collected and the numbers reported. The athlete manages to recall what they ate and drank including most specifics (brands flavours quantities plausible estimations of volumes). However there are estimations made within the data which affect the overall confidence level in the data reported.

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